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  • Audel

    HVAC FundamentalsVolume 1

    Heating Systems,Furnaces, and Boilers

    All New 4th Edition

    James E. Brumbaugh

    C1.jpg

  • Audel

    HVAC FundamentalsVolume 1

    Heating Systems,Furnaces, and Boilers

    All New 4th Edition

    James E. Brumbaugh

  • Vice President and Executive Group Publisher: Richard SwadleyVice President and Executive Publisher: Robert IpsenVice President and Publisher: Joseph B. WikertExecutive Editorial Director: Mary BednarekEditorial Manager: Kathryn A. MalmExecutive Editor: Carol A. LongAcquisitions Editors: Katie Feltman

    Katie MohrSenior Production Manager: Fred BernardiDevelopment Editor: Kenyon BrownProduction Editor: Vincent KunkemuellerText Design & Composition: TechBooks

    Copyright 2004 by Wiley Publishing, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana. All rights reserved.

    Published simultaneously in Canada

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmit-ted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scan-ning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 UnitedStates Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, orauthorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the CopyrightClearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax(978) 646-8600. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to theLegal Department, Wiley Publishing, Inc., 10475 Crosspoint Blvd., Indianapolis, IN46256, (317) 572-3447, fax (317) 572-4447, E-mail: permcoordinator@wiley.com.

    The publisher and the author make no representations or warranties with respect to theaccuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all war-ranties, including without limitation warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. Nowarranty may be created or extended by sales or promotional materials. The adviceand strategies contained herein may not be suitable for every situation. This work issold with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal,accounting, or other professional services. If professional assistance is required, theservices of a competent professional person should be sought. Neither the publisher northe author shall be liable for damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organization orWebsite is referred to in this work as a citation and/or a potential source of furtherinformation does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the informationthe organization or Website may provide or recommendations it may make. Further,readers should be aware that Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed ordisappeared between when this work was written and when it is read.

    For general information on our other products and services please contact ourCustomer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974, outside theUnited States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002.

    Trademarks: Wiley, the Wiley Publishing logo, Audel are trademarks or registeredtrademarks of John Wiley & Sons, Inc. and/or its affiliates. All other trademarks arethe property of their respective owners. Wiley Publishing, Inc., is not associated withany product or vendor mentioned in this book.

    Wiley also publishes its books in a variety of electronic formats. Some content thatappears in print may not be available in electronic books.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

    ISBN: 0-764-54206-0

    Printed in the United States of America

    10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

  • For Laura, my friend, my daughter.

  • Contents

    Introduction xix

    About the Author xxi

    Chapter 1 Introduction 1Heating and Ventilating Systems 2Air Conditioning 4Selecting a Suitable Heating, Ventilating,

    or Air Conditioning System 4Career Opportunities 5Professional Organizations 7

    Chapter 2 Heating Fundamentals 9British Thermal Unit 9Relationship Between Heat and Work 9Heat Transfer 11Specific, Sensible, and Latent Heat 15Heat-Conveying Mediums 16

    Air 16Steam 18Water 22Electricity 25

    Chapter 3 Insulating and Ventilating Structures 27Insulating Structures 27Principles of Heat Transmission 28

    Heat Transfer Values 29Thermal Conductivity 29Thermal Conductance 46Thermal Resistance 47Overall Coefficient of Heat Transmission 48

    v

  • vi Contents

    Condensation 48Vapor Retarders 49Air Barriers and Air/Vapor Retarders 51

    Insulating Materials 52Rigid Insulation Board 52Reflective Insulation 54Blanket or Batt Insulation 55Loose-Fill Insulation 56Blown-In Insulation 57Foam Insulation 58

    Building Construction and Location 58Recommended Insulation Practices 59

    Frame Walls 60Masonry 60Metal 63Sandwich Construction 63Basement Walls 63Crawl Space Exterior Walls 63Walls Between Separately Heated

    Dwelling Units 64Wood or Metal Joist Frame Floors 64Concrete Floors 66Slab-on-Grade Floors 66Floors of Sandwich Construction 66Frame Ceilings and Roofs 67Concrete Ceilings 68Sandwich Ceilings 68

    Windows and Doors 69Insulating Attics, Attic Crawl Spaces,

    and Flat Roofs 69Ventilating Structures 72

    Chapter 4 Sizing Residential Heating and AirConditioning Systems 73Rule-of-Thumb Methods 74Sizing Systems Using Coefficients of

    Heat Transmission 75

  • Contents vii

    Outside Design Temperature 77Inside Design Temperature 77Design Temperature Difference 80Determining Coefficients of

    Heat Transmission 80Calculating Net Area 80Heat Transmission Loss Formula 81Computing Total Heat Loss 82

    Loss in Doors and Windows 84Loss in Basements 84Loss in Slab Construction 86Infiltration Heat Loss 87Ventilation Heat Loss 92

    The Average Value Method 93Heat Loss Tabulation Forms 95Estimating Fuel Requirements and

    Heating Costs 100The Heat Loss Formula 100The Corrected Heat Loss Formula 102The Degree-Day Formula 102The NEMA Formula 106

    Manual J and Related Materials Used for Sizing Heating/Cooling Systems 106

    Other Heating Costs 107Determining Utility Rates 108

    Chapter 5 Heating Fuels 111Natural Gas 112Manufactured Gas 113Liquefied Petroleum Gas 113Fuel Oils 114Coal 117Coke 119Briquettes 119Coal Oil 119Wood as Fuel 120Ash, Slag, and Clinker Formation 122

  • viii Contents

    Soot 123Comparing Heating Fuel Costs 123

    Chapter 6 Warm-Air Heating Systems 125Classifying Warm-Air Heating Systems 125Gravity Warm-Air Heating Systems 128

    Planning a Gravity Warm-Air Heating System 129

    Forced-Warm-Air Heating Systems 130Planning a Forced-Warm-Air

    Heating System 131Perimeter-Loop Warm-Air

    Heating Systems 132Ceiling Panel Systems 134Crawl Space Plenum Systems 134Zoning a Forced-Warm-Air

    Heating System 136Balancing a Warm-Air Heating System 136Warm-Air Furnaces 137Control Components 138Ducts and Duct Sizing 139Cooling with a Warm-Air

    Heating System 140Air Cleaning 141Humidifiers and Dehumidifiers 142Advantages of a Warm-Air

    Heating System 144Disadvantages of a Warm-Air

    Heating System 146Troubleshooting a Warm-Air

    Heating System 146

    Chapter 7 Hydronic Heating Systems 149Classifying Hot-Water Heating Systems 149One-Pipe System 150Series-Loop System 152

  • Contents ix

    Two-Pipe, Direct-Return System 153Two-Pipe, Reverse-Return System 154Combination Pipe Systems 155Zoning a Two-Pipe System 155Radiant Panel Heating 155Other Applications 156Gravity Hot-Water Heating Systems 157Forced-Hot-Water Heating Systems 163Hot-Water Boilers 164Hydronic Furnaces 165Combination Water Heaters 168Control Components 169Pipe and Pipe Sizing 170Expansion Tanks 171Circulating Pumps (Circulators) 173Drainage 175Heat-Emitting Units 175Air Conditioning 176Moisture Control 179Electrically Heated Systems 179Advantages of Hydronic

    Heating Systems 182Disadvantages of Hydronic

    Heating Systems 182Troubleshooting Hydronic

    Heating Systems 183

    Chapter 8 Steam Heating Systems 185Classifying Steam Heating Systems 185Gravity Steam Heating Systems 186One-Pipe, Reverse-Flow System 189Upfeed One-Pipe System 190Upfeed One-Pipe Relief System 192Downfeed One-Pipe System 196One-Pipe Circuit System 198One-Pipe, Divided-Circuit

    Nonrelief System 200

  • x Contents

    One-Pipe Circuit System with Loop 200Two-Pipe Steam Heating Systems 201Two-Pipe, Divided-Circuit System 201Vapor Steam Heating Systems 202Open (Atmospheric) Vapor Systems 204Closed Vapor Systems 209Vacuum Steam Heating Systems 210Natural Vacuum Systems 214Mechanical Vacuum System 219Combined Atmospheric Pressure

    and Vacuum Systems 221Exhaust-Steam Heating 223Proprietary Systems 228High-Pressure Steam Heating Systems 242Steam Boilers 244Control Components 246Hartford Return Connection 247Pipes and Piping Details 248Steam Traps 248Pumps 249Heat-Emitting Units 249Air Supply and Venting 249Unit Heaters 250Air Conditioning 250Troubleshooting Steam

    Heating Systems 251

    Chapter 9 Electric Heating Systems 253Central Hot-Water Systems 253Central Forced-Warm-Air

    Heating Systems 256Radiant Heating Systems 258Baseboard Heating Systems 259Electric Unit Ventilators 261Electric Unit Heaters 262Electric Space Heaters 263Heat Pumps 263

  • Contents xi

    Electric Heating and Cooling Controls 264

    Insulation for Electrically Heatedand Cooled Structures 265

    Further Information 269Advantages of Electric Heating

    and Cooling 269Disadvantages of Electric Heating

    and Cooling 270Troubleshooting Electric

    Heating Systems 270

    Chapter 10 Furnace Fundamentals 273Classifying Furnaces 273

    Upflow Highboy Furnace 275Upflow Lowboy Furnace 276Downflow Furnace 276Horizontal Furnace 278

    Gravity Warm-Air Furnaces 279Selecting a Furnace for a

    New House 279Selecting a Furnace for an

    Older House 282Furnace Components and Controls 282Pipeless Floor and Wall Furnaces 285Duct Furnaces 286Geothermal Furnaces 286Furnace Installation 288Furnace Maintenance 288Troubleshooting Furnaces 289

    Chapter 11 Gas Furnaces 291Types of Gas Furnaces 291

    Standing-Pilot Gas Furnaces 294Mid-Efficiency Gas Furnaces 295High-Efficiency Gas Furnaces 297

  • xii Contents

    Gas Furnace Components 299Furnace Controls 300Heat Exchanger 305Gas Burners 308Gas Pilot Assembly 311Blower and Motor 313Air Filter 313Some Installation Recommendations 316Locations and Clearances 317Wiring 318Duct Connections 320Ventilation and Combustion Air 321Venting 323Flue Pipe 326

    Chimney 330Chimney Troubleshooting 331Draft Hood 331Pilot Burner Adjustment 337Gas Input Adjustment 337High-Altitude Adjustment 340Changing Burner Orifices 340Manifold Pressure Adjustment 342Combustion Air Adjustment 343Gas Supply Piping 346

    Sizing Gas Piping 348Installing Gas Piping 349

    Typical Startup Instructions fora Standing-Pilot Gas Furnace 350

    Typical Startup Instructions foran Electronic Ignition Furnace 352

    Blowers and Motors 353Air Delivery and Blower Adjustment 354Direct-Drive Blower Adjustment 355Belt-Drive Blower Adjustment 355

    Air Filters 356Air Conditioning 357

  • Contents xiii

    Installation Checklist 360Gas Furnace Inspections, Service,

    and Maintenance Tips 361Troubleshooting a Gas Furnace 363

    Troubleshooting Charts 368

    Chapter 12 Oil Furnaces 375Conventional Oil Furnace 375Mid-Efficiency and High-Efficiency

    Oil Furnaces 378Mid-Efficiency (Noncondensing)

    Oil Furnace 379High-Efficiency (Condensing)

    Oil Furnace 379Basic Components of an

    Oil Furnace 382Furnace Controls 382Heat Exchanger 386Oil Burner Assembly 388Fuel Pump and Fuel Pump Motor 389Blower and Motor 390Combustion Air Blowers 392Cleanout and Observation Ports 392Vent Opening 392Air Filter 392

    Installing an Oil Furnace 393Some Installation Recommendations 393Location and Clearance 393Wiring 394Duct Connections 395Ventilation and Combustion Air 395Combustion Draft 397Venting 397

    Chimneys and Chimney Troubleshooting 399

    Installation Checklist 400

  • xiv Contents

    Fuel Supply Tank and Fuel Line 401Fuel Tank Location 402Filler Pipe 404Tank Vent Pipe 405Oil Filter 405

    Blowers and Motors 405Waste Oil Furnaces 405Air Conditioning 406Starting the Burner 407Oil Furnace Spillage 408Oil Furnace Inspection, Service,

    and Maintenance Tips 408Oil Furnace Adjustments 410Troubleshooting Oil Furnaces 411

    Troubleshooting Charts 414

    Chapter 13 Coal Furnaces, Wood Furnaces, and Multi-Fuel Furnaces 419Coal Furnaces 419

    Sizing Requirements 419Location and Clearance 420Installation Recommendations 421Duct Connections 421Electrical Wiring 423Ventilation and Combustion Air 424Venting 430Flue Pipe 430Chimneys and Chimney Troubleshooting 430

    Furnace Components 432Automatic Controls 432Furnace Grate 433Coal Stoker 434Hand-Firing Methods 434Blower and Motor Assembly 435Blower Adjustment 435Air Filter 435System Accessory Devices 435

  • Contents xv

    Wood Furnaces 436Wood Add-On Furnaces 437Multi-Fuel Furnaces 438Installation, Operating, and

    Maintenance Instructions for Coal, Wood, and Multi-Fuel Furnaces 441Assembly and Installation

    Recommendations 441Maintenance Instructions 442Multi-Fuel Furnace Operation 447

    Troubleshooting Coal, Wood, andMulti-Fuel Furnaces 448

    Chapter 14 Electric Furnaces 453Electrical Power Supply 453Planning Suggestions 454

    Location and Clearance 455Installation Recommendations 456

    Duct Connections 456Basic Components 457Automatic Controls 458Heating Elements 462Timing Sequences 463Safety Controls 464

    Temperature Limit Controls 464Secondary High-Limit Control 464Furnace Fuses 464Circuit Breakers 464Transformer 468Thermal Overload Protector 470

    Electrical Wiring 470Blowers and Motors 471Air Delivery and Blower

    Adjustment 471Air Filter 471Air Conditioning 471

  • xvi Contents

    Maintenance and Operating Instructions 475Furnace Air Filters, Electronic

    Air Cleaners, and Humidifers 475Heating Elements and Heating

    Control Wiring 475Blowers/Fans 476Ducts 476Thermostats 476Furnaces without Air Conditioners 477

    Troubleshooting an Electric Furnace 477

    Chapter 15 Steam and Hot-Water Space Heating Boilers 481Boiler Rating Method 485Boiler Heating Surface 486Boiler Efficiency 486Types of Boilers 487

    Gas-Fired Boilers 492OilFired Boilers 493Coal-Fired Boilers 493Electric Boilers 497

    High-Efficiency Boilers 502Steam Boiler Valves, Controls,

    and Accessories 502Steam Boiler Low-Water Cutoffs 505Installing a Low-Water Cutoff 508Fusible Plugs 515Pressure Relief Valves 515Pressure Controllers 517Vacuum Relief Valve 519Steam Boiler Aquastat 521Blowdown Valve 521Try Cocks 522Steam Boiler Injectors 523

  • Contents xvii

    Water Gauges 524Water Columns 526Steam Gauges 526Steam Gauge Pigtails 528Hartford Return Connection 529

    Hot-Water Boiler Valves, Controls,and Accessories 529Hot-Water Boiler Low-Water Cutoffs 532Hot-Water Boiler Pressure Relief Valves 534High-Pressure Limit Switch 535Hot-Water Boiler Aquastats 535Pressure-Reducing Valves 538Combination Valves 541Balancing Valve 548Backflow Preventer 548Altitude Gauges 549

    Circulator (Pump) 550Air Separator 550Purging Air from the System 553Expansion Tanks 553Air Supply and Venting 553Induced-Draft Fans 558Controlling Excessive Draft

    (Gas-Fired Boilers) 559Tankless Water Heaters 560

    Leaking Coils 561Blowing Down a Boiler 561Boiler Operation, Service, and

    Maintenance 562Steam Boilers 563Hot-Water (Hydronic) Boilers 564Boiler Water 564Cleaning Boilers 565

    Troubleshooting Boilers 565Boiler Repairs 568Installing Boilers 568

  • xviii Contents

    Chapter 16 Boiler and Furnace Conversio...

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