attitudes beliefs values ppt @ bec doms bagalkot mba

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Attitudes beliefs values ppt @ bec doms bagalkot mba



2. What Is Attitude? The term attitude is being used quite frequently in describing peoplesbehavior. There are two senses in which it is used. One is in general terms, meaning the positive or negative orientationof a person. For e.g, when it is said that Mala has a positive attitude or hat Geetahas a negative attitude. However, this is not a correct usage of the term attitude. Attitude always has a referent, i.e. an object towards which positive ornegative orientation is implied. 3. Cont.. Attitude is always towards something. For e.g., you may say that Mohan has a positive attitude towardshis organization. Although attitudes are generally affective (oremotional) in nature, they also have terms of acting or behavingon basis of that feeling. For e.g, my exposure, my job gives meenough knowledge about it. Then I develop a feeling for it (I like it or I do not like it).Finally, I act on the feeling- stay on in my job or quit it sogenerally attitudes lead to behavior. 4. Cont.. Attitudes can also be defined as a multiplicative function ofbeliefs and values. A belief is an association between twocognitive elements. For e.g, if a person believes that not spacing out ones children( having children without enough gap between their births) isinjurious to the mothers health. If the person has a high valuefor the mothers health, 5. Cont An attitude is a imaginary construct that represents anindividuals degree of like or dislike for something. Attitudes aregenerally positive or negative views of a person, place, thing, orevent this is often referred to as the attitude object. Attitude affects (influences, impacts) on behavior. Behavior affects (influences, impacts)on attitude. 6. Work Attitudes In relation to organization, the general meaning of attitude isapplied to work. Work attitudes are reflected in job satisfaction andin organizational commitment. Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction includes various aspects- the nature of the jobitself, the compensation a person gets by working on thejob, growthopportunities for career advancement, theorganizational climate, the behavior of the supervisor andcoworkers and so on. 7. Cont.. Job satisfaction can be increased by increasing role efficacy, byunderstanding a persons needs and making sure that these needsare met in the work assigned to the person. Job satisfaction leads to improved performance and retention ofpersonnel in the organization. Recruitment policies, placementspractices, development schemes, etc. contribute to job satisfaction. 8. Organizational CommitmentIt is another aspect of work attitudes. While job satisfaction is primarily concerned with the job or the work a person undertakes in an organization, commitment shows the relationship between the individual and the organization. The stronger such a relationship is, the higher the organizational commitment will be.It has been suggested that organizational commitment is a critical aspect of work attitude.There are 3 dimensions of organizational commitment1.Affective commitment2.Continuous commitment3.Normative commitment 9. Cont..1.Affective commitment: a persons emotional attachment toand identification with the organization.2.Continuous commitment: based on the benefits the personsee in continuing with the organization.3.Normative commitment: the willingness of the person tocontinue with the organization because it is commonlyconsidered a good thing to stat on. 10. Attitude Change Attitudes have 3 components- Cognitive (knowledge and understanding), Affective(feeling), and Conative (action). Attitudes change covers all 3 aspects. Several theories havebeen proposed for attitude change. 11. Reinforcement Theory Hovland et al. propounded one of the first major theories ofattitude change, developed in the framework of Hulls learningtheory, and oriented towards the effects of persuasivecommunication. According to this theory, changes in opinions can result in attitudechange, depending on the presence or absence of rewards. Thelearning of new attitudes is not different in nature than any otherverbal or motor skill, except that opinions relate to a singlepropositions, whereas other skills involve a series of propositions. 12. Cont.. The acceptance of new opinion ( and hence attitude formation)is dependent upon the incentives that are offered in thecommunication. 13. Balance Theory Heider developed a balance theory of attitude change that wasinfluenced by Gestalt principles. In Heiders theory, when beliefsare unbalanced, stress is created and there is pressure to changeattitudes. The two mainfactors affecting balance are thesentiment(e.g., liking, approving,admiring) andunity(e.g., similarity, proximity, membership) qualities of beliefs.Balance exists if the sentiment or unity between beliefs aboutevents or people are equally positive or negative, imbalance occurswhen they are dissimilar in nature. 14. Cognitive Consistency Theory Abelson and others developed theories of cognitive consistency. Itsuggests that people will try and maintain consistency amongtheir beliefs and make changes(i.e., accept or reject ideas) whenthis does not occur. For e.g, if a college student who wants to live in a co-eddormitory and also wants to get good grades is presented with factthat student who live in co- ed dorms get poor grades, thestudent will either reject this propositions or change his attitudesabout co-ed dorms or good grades. 15. Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognitive Consistency Theory proposes that people aremotivated to change and act consistently with theirbeliefs, values, and perceptions when there is psychologicalinconsistency or disagreement between two pieces ofinformation. The conflict between the inconsistent factorsproduces dissonance. The personbegins to doubt previouslyheldrationales, beliefs, or values. Thesedoubtsproduceuncomfortable feelings and may interfere with the ability toact. The pros and cons of each factor are examined. 16. Cont.. The resolution of the dissonance occurs when one factor is seen as more attractive than the other. Prior to the resolution of the dissonance, the dilemma between the conflicting factors prevents action. When dissonance is resolved, the person is better able to act in accordancewith the moreattractive factor because beliefs, values, and perceptions agree with the behavior. 17. BeliefsBeliefs are assumptions or convictions hold as true aboutsomething, concept, or person.Norms Of Beliefsa. Formal: Norms are official standards or laws that governbehavior.b. Informal: These norms are unwritten rules or standards that govern the behavior of group members 18. Values A value is a conception, explicit or implicit, distinctive of anindividual or characteristic of a group, of the desirable whichinfluences the selection from available modes, modes, means, andends of action. In this definition, they emphasize the affective (desirable), cognitive(conception), and Conative (selection) elements as essential to theconcept of value. Values represent basic conviction that a specific mode of conduct orend state of existence is personally or socially preferable to anopposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence. 19. Societal Values We shall take up four main Western conceptual frameworks ofsocietal values and then see the values of the Indian society. Valuesdo not operate singly. Several values interact with each other andvalue systems or value orientation are formed. Most conceptualframeworks propose such systems. Human- nature orientation. This mainly delve into ethicalvalues, which fall in a conservatism- liberalism continuum. Valuessuch as purification of mind, respect for individuals, containment ofgreed, self- restraint, integrity, detachment, compassion, etc comeunder this category. 20. Cont Man- nature orientation: this is represented by the fatalism-scientism dimension- does nature control nature? Fatalism canbe defined as a belief that human situation and acts arepredetermined by some supernatural power and can never be, oris little, influenced by individual volition. On the otherhand, scientism can be defined as a belief that human situationsare the result of natural and/ or social forces, which can beunderstood and changed by human volition or human action. 21. Time orientation This is reflected in past orientation, present orientation, or futureorientation. Activity orientation: conservatism-liberalism mainly represents thehuman nature dimensions and also the activity dimension in part.Conservatism can be defined as positive attitude towards traditionalinstitutions and practices and a maintaining of the statusquo, producing a tendency to resist change. Liberalism can be defined as a positive attitude towards the searchfor new ways and new ideas and modification or change in the statusquo. 22. THANK YOU