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  • ATSI Bari, 5 September 2014

    ShroudShroud--like coloration, conservation like coloration, conservation measures and image processingmeasures and image processing

    A survey of experiments at ENEA FrascatiA survey of experiments at ENEA Frascati

    Paolo Di Lazzaro Daniele Murra

    A survey of experiments at ENEA FrascatiA survey of experiments at ENEA Frascati

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, Daniele Murra ENEA Center of Frascati

    paolo dilazzaro@enea itpaolo.dilazzaro@enea.it

  • Outline

    Th i th Sh d ST RPThe images on the Shroud, STuRP

    Photochemistry-based linen coloration

    Conservation measures

    Misleading image processing

    Conclusion

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • The images on the Shroud

    Recent Photo of the Turin Shroud (Courtesy David Rolfe) The two faint body images have a lower contrast and are lessy g

    visible than all the stains thereabouts: blood, water, burns.

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • The STuRP Project

    Torino,  8‐14 October, 1978.

    32 scientists and technicians, 

    2.5 million $ equipment, 

    120 hours no‐stop analyses,

    2 years for data elaboration

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Main findings of STuRP The Shroud is not a painting, no pigment, any directionality, not a scorch. The image encodes cloth to body distance, and it is present in both contactg y , p

    and non contact areas. The image is superficial, no more than 0.6 microns thick (work by others

    has shown 0.2 microns).) Invisible halos surround blood.

    Blood went on before image (no image beneath blood).

    The blood stains contain hemoglobin and serum albumin.

    Calcium and strontium and iron are uniformly present on the Shroudp in small quantities.

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • STuRP conclusion

    “We can conclude for now that theWe can conclude for now that the Shroud image is that of a real human form of a scourged, crucified mancrucified man. It is not the product of an artist. The blood stains are composed of hemoglobin and also give a positive test for serum albumin. The image is an ongoing mysteryThe image is an ongoing mystery and until further chemical studies are made, perhaps by this group of scientists or perhaps by somescientists, or perhaps by some scientists in the future, the problem remains unsolved.”

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Outline

    Th i th Sh d ST RPThe images on the Shroud, STuRP

    Photochemistry-based linen coloration

    Conservation measures

    Misleading image processing

    Conclusion

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Why photochemistry? Why UV?

    E i d b h l h di i b k h i lEnergy carried by short-wavelength radiation breaks chemical bonds of the irradiated material without inducing a significant heating (photochemical reaction)heating (photochemical reaction). Moreover, linen has a molar absorptivity which increases when decreasing the radiation wavelength: the smaller the wavelength, the thinner the material necessary to absorb all the radiation.

    Th h h th lt i l t di ti “ ti tThen, we have chosen the ultraviolet radiation as an “acting at distance” mechanism to obtain at least two of the main characteristics of the Shroud image: a thin coloration depthcharacteristics of the Shroud image: a thin coloration depth and a low-temperature image-formation.

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • How much different is our linen from the Shroud?

    The solid lines show the absolute reflectance of the linen of the Shroud in areas of no-image as a function of the wavelength (Gilbert, Appl. Opt. 1980).

    Th d h d li h h b l fl f h li d i iThe dashed line shows the absolute reflectance of the linen used in our experiments. From J. Imag. Sci. Techn. 54, 4302 (2010)

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Set-up at ENEA Frascati

    Hercules ENEA PBUR

    6 J, 120 ns, 5 Hz

    308 nm308 nm

    LPX 305 PBURLPX-305, PBUR

    0.5 J, 30 ns, 50 Hz. 308 nm o 193 nm

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Ultrashort UV pulses irradiate linens

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Short movie

    Excimer laser irradiation of linenExcimer laser irradiation of linen

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Linen thread after 10ns, λ = 193nm irradiationirradiation

    From J. Imag. Science Techn. 54, 040201(2010) Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Depth of coloration: UV vs. VUV

    λ = 193 nm Cross section of irradiated linen

    threads

    λ = 308 nm

    Di Lazzaro, Regina Apostolorum  9/4/14 Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Sometimes VUV does not color the scw inside the fiber

    N h ll ll i h i f b kNote the small yellowish pieces of broken pcw From Applied Optics 51, 8567 (2012)

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Latent images generated by VUV

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari Unpublished

  • Half-tone effect by VUV irradiation

    Microscope view of linen threads after VUV laser irradiation. Single colored fibers are visible next to uncolored fibers like in the Shroudcolored fibers are visible next to uncolored fibers, like in the Shroud image (areal density coloration). From Applied Optics 51, 8567 (2012)

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Cold or thermal coloration?

    λ = 308 nm T = 21 °C - 34 °C

    λ = 193 nm T = 22 °C - 25 °C

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Short movie

    Th i l t tl b hThe excimer laser as a contactless brush

    LBS

    ℓ PD

    EXCIMER LASER

    OSOS

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Shroud-like face using excimer laser as a brush

    The face image produced by laser shots is very faint, invisible at sunlight. Only in shadow we can perceive a low-contrast yellowish faint image

    Unpublished Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

    Only in shadow we can perceive a low-contrast , yellowish faint image.

  • Shroud-like face using excimer laser as a brush

    The negative of the previous photos shows a positive image. The negative allows to see the single laser shots producing the very faint image.

    Si 2013

    The negative allows to see the single laser shots producing the very faint image.

    Since 2013 it is exposed

    i th Min the Museum of the Shroud

    i T iin Turin

    Unpublished

    Di Lazzaro, Regina Apostolorum  9/4/14

    Unpublished

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • Outline

    Th i th Sh d ST RPThe images on the Shroud, STuRP

    Photochemistry-based linen coloration

    Conservation measures

    Misleading image processing

    Conclusion

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • From cellulose to cromophore (conjugated carbonyl groups)(conjugated carbonyl groups)

    Alkene –C=C – and ketonic carbonyls – C=O   absorb λ

  • Ionizing radiation vs. Shroud conservation

    Gas Radon is the most dangerous source of natural ionizing radiation, potentially affecting the long term conservation of the image contrast and visibility.

    Gases and pressure Relative

    humidity, temperature

    Box material / thickness

    Radon issue temperature

    Our 99.6% Ne or Ar,

    0.4% O2, RH ≈ 40% Al or Al-based

    alloy

    Building materials and objects aroundsuggestions 9 mbar water vapor,

    P = 1,05 bar T = 20 °C

    alloy t ≥ 5 mm

    objects around must be Radon-

    free

    Present li

    99.5% Ar, 0.5% O2 RH = 50% Al alloy, Information not

    reliquary P equalized to the atmospheric pressure

    T = 19 °C t variable available

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

    From EAI, special issue on Knowledge, Diagnostics and Preservation of Cultural Heritage, pp. 89-94 (2012).

  • Outline

    Th i th Sh d ST RPThe images on the Shroud, STuRP

    Photochemistry-based linen coloration

    Conservation measures

    Misleading image processing

    Conclusion

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • A hidden face on the back of the Shroud?

    J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. vol. 6 pp. 491-503 (2004)

    i i f dDeep image processing of a screened photographic reproduction of the backside taken from a book. Image processing tools i l d d l ti ith G i filtincluded convolution with Gaussian filters, summation of images, gamma correction and filtering in spatial frequency by direct and inverse 2D Fourier transformsinverse 2D Fourier transforms.

    Sindon vol. 19 pp. 57-69 (2003) Direct and inverse Fourier transform of a high- resolution image directly obtained by in-depthresolution image directly obtained by in depth scanning of the backside of the Shroud, did not show any face or any other image.

    Paolo Di Lazzaro, ATSI 2014 Bari

  • A hidden face on the back of the Shroud?

    A direct, in‐depth analysis on the Shroud shows there is no hidden face or any other image on the backside of the Shroud. How can we crosscheck this result?

      We checked both images on the left have the same histogram of “number of pixels” vs. “gray levels”. Then, after the optimum sp