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  • Atmospheric / Topographic Correction for Satellite Imagery

    (ATCOR-2/3 User Guide, Version 8.2 BETA, February 2012)

    R. Richter1 and D. Schlapfer21 DLR - German Aerospace Center, D - 82234 Wessling, Germany2ReSe Applications, Langeggweg 3, CH-9500 Wil SG, Switzerland

    DLR-IB 565-02/12

  • 2

    The cover image shows a true color subset of a Landsat-7 ETM+ scene with lake Constance atthe Austrian-German-Swiss border (top left), acquired 2 June 2000. The top right image is theatmospherically corrected scene employing a haze removal over land and water. The haze removalover water is one of the new features of the 2011 release. The bottom part presents a zoomed view.The water mask is derived from the DEM file of this scene, because a unique water classificationwith exclusively spectral criteria is not possible in this scene. A correct water/land mask is criticalfor the quality of the separate haze removal algorithms over land and water.

    ATCOR-2/3 User Guide, Version 8.2.0, February 2012

    Authors:R. Richter1 and D. Schlapfer21 DLR - German Aerospace Center, D - 82234 Wessling , Germany2 ReSe Applications, Langeggweg 3, CH-9500 Wil SG, Switzerland

    c All rights are with the authors of this manual.

    Distribution:ReSe Applications SchlapferLangeggweg 3, CH-9500 Wil, Switzerland

    Updates: see ReSe download page: www.rese.ch/download

    The MODTRAN R trademark is being used with the expressed permission of the owner, the UnitedStates of America, as represented by the United States Air Force.

    http://www.rese.ch/download/index.html
  • Contents

    1 Introduction 11

    2 Basic Concepts in the Solar Region 142.1 Radiation components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162.2 BRDF correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192.3 Spectral calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212.4 Inflight radiometric calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.5 De-shadowing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    3 Basic Concepts in the Thermal Region 27

    4 Workflow 294.1 Menus Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294.2 First steps with ATCOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314.3 Survey of processing steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344.4 Directory structure of ATCOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354.5 Convention for file names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 354.6 User-defined hyperspectral sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

    4.6.1 Definition of a new sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374.7 Spectral smile sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404.8 Haze, cloud, water map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424.9 Processing of multiband thermal data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434.10 External water vapor map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    5 Description of Modules 485.1 Menu: File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

    5.1.1 Display ENVI File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495.1.2 Show Textfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525.1.3 Select Input Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525.1.4 Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525.1.5 Plot Sensor Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535.1.6 Plot Calibration File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535.1.7 Show System File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 535.1.8 Edit Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    5.2 Menu: New Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 565.2.1 Define Sensor Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575.2.2 Create Channel Filter Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 575.2.3 BBCALC : Blackbody Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

    3

  • CONTENTS 4

    5.2.4 RESLUT : Resample Atm. LUTS from Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 595.3 Menu: Atm. Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

    5.3.1 The ATCOR main panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615.3.2 ATCOR2: multispectral sensors, flat terrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615.3.3 ATCOR3: multispectral sensors, rugged terrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615.3.4 ATCOR2: User-defined Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625.3.5 ATCOR3: User-defined Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 625.3.6 SPECTRA module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655.3.7 Aerosol Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665.3.8 Visibility Estimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665.3.9 Inflight radiometric calibration module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665.3.10 Shadow removal panels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 695.3.11 Panels for Image Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 725.3.12 Start ATCOR Process (Tiled / from .inn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

    5.4 Menu: Topographic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785.4.1 Slope/Aspect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785.4.2 Skyview Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785.4.3 Shadow Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795.4.4 DEM Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

    5.5 Menu: Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825.5.1 Resample a Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825.5.2 Spectral Polishing: Statistical Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825.5.3 Spectral Polishing: Radiometric Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 835.5.4 Spectral Smile Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

    5.6 Menu: Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875.6.1 TOA/At-Sensor Radiance Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875.6.2 At-Sensor Apparent Reflectance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875.6.3 Resample Image Cube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

    5.7 Menu: Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895.7.1 Solar Zenith and Azimuth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 895.7.2 SPECL: Spectral Reflectance Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905.7.3 SPECL for User Defined Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905.7.4 Nadir normalization (Wide FOV Imagery) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 905.7.5 Quick Topographic (no atm.) Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 915.7.6 Add a Blue Spectral Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925.7.7 Spectral Smile Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925.7.8 Spectral Calibration (Atm. Absorption Features) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 945.7.9 Calibration Coefficients with Regression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 965.7.10 Convert High Res. Database (New Solar Irradiance) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 975.7.11 Convert .atm for another Irradiance Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

    5.8 Menu: Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995.8.1 Help Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99

    6 Batch Processing Reference 1006.1 Using the batch mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1006.2 Batch modules, keyword-driven modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

  • CONTENTS 5

    7 Value Added Products 1087.1 LAI, FPAR, Albedo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1087.2 Surface energy balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

    8 Sensor simulation of hyper/multispectral imagery 116

    9 Implementation Reference and Sensor Specifics 1219.1 The Monochromatic atmospheric database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

    9.1.1 Visible / Near Infrared region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1219.1.2 Thermal region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1229.1.3 Database update with solar irradiance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1239.1.4 Sensor-specific atmospheric database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1249.1.5 Resample sensor-specific atmospheric LUTs with another solar irradiance . . 124

    9.2 Supported I/O file types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1259.3 Preference parameters for ATCOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1279.4 Job control parameters of the inn file (former ini) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1309.5 Problems and Hints . .

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