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How the Chesapeake Bay Watershed is impacted by green infrastructure and storm-water management in comparison to typical urban and suburban development
The Impacts of Traditional Stormwater Management vs. Green Infrastructure on the Chesapeake Bay WatershedPresentation by Ashley Anne StrobridgeFor GGS 307 Sustainable DevelopmentGeorge Mason University
The Chesapeake Bay Watershed covers parts of 6 states & Washington DC:
VirginiaMarylandWest VirginiaDelawarePennsylvaniaNew YorkWashington DC
Quick Facts about the Chesapeake BayLargest Coastal Estuary in the World (CBF).Supports 3,600 species of plant and animal life, including over 300 fish species (NWF).The Bay produces about 500 million pounds of seafood per year.Chesapeake Bay and its tidal rivers are on the Clean Water Act's list of impaired waters.Holds about 18 trillion gallons of water (CBF).
Quick Facts ContinuedOnly half of the water in the Bay comes from the ocean. The rest comes from the 64,000 square mile watershed.Every four years in the CBW, an area of land the size of Washington, D.C. is converted from green filter to grey funnel.Most sewer drains dont go to the sewage plant polluted runoff from your street runs into local waters and ultimately to the Bay.
Current Development Issues Facing the Chesapeake Bay WatershedDead ZonesOver-development of land (building out, not up)Loss of Habitat (for land and sea-creatures)Polluted Stormwater run-off
Quick Facts about Stormwater Management in the CBWImpervious surfaces create land area where water cannot be naturally filtered of pollutants, and that water becomes run-off that is full of pollutants such as motor oil from roadways, and pesticides and fertilizers from lawn care. Just 1 Inch of Rain Falling on 1 Acre of Paved Surface Equals 27,000 Gallons of Polluted Runoff
According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), urban and suburban stormwater is the source of about 15 percent of the total nitrogen entering the Bay, and is the only source that is still increasing. (CBF)Stormwater run-off is also responsible for other pollution entering the Bay such as e-coli from pet waste, litter such as cigarette butts, and nutrients which cause algae blooms, suffocating life in the Bay.
The Effects of Stormwater
The first 5 min of the following video:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FZ98limHhw8Typical Stormwater Management
A Growing ProblemDespite making headway with other kinds of pollution to the Bay, pollution from untreated suburban and urban stormwater runoff from blacktop, roofs, and other hardened surfaces continues to grow. 40 million lbs. of polluted runoff in 2011.But by 2025, there is hope to reduce that number.
Detach downspouts to prevent them from flowing into municipal storm drain systems. Installrain barrels to collect the flow instead.Create "pervious" walkways and driveways (of crushed stone, mulch, or other materials) that return rainwater to the ground.Reconfigure yard space to createrain gardens in low-lying areas, and replace grass turf with native plants. (CBF)
What citizens and communities can do to save the Bay.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UvZW0JOddhU&list=PLeubfrCJrfk3l1ozr_d-uY2l88zEQpfdgGreen Infrastructure Solutions
A 2006 study compared the 1996 water quality of the Bay with what it would have been without the Clean Water Act, and with the Act there were benefits of $357.9 million to $1.8 billion in recreation and tourist income to just Virginia.VIMS estimated that in 2004 recreational and commercial fishing in the Bay contributed $1.23 billion in sales, $717 million in income, and more than 13,000 jobs in Virginia alone.Other benefits such as increased property value from cleaner waterways.
Financial Benefits of a Healthy Chesapeake Bay
Traditional Stormwater Management affects the Bay negatively by washing pollutants into the waterwaysGreen Infrastructure can improve that problem by slowing water-flow, and decreasing the amount of pollution that flows into the waterways by relieving the pressure on wastewater management facilities.Communities throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed can implement these plans to create a cleaner Bay!Summary
According to the EPA, as of Nov. 2013, the government was still looking for a database that would bring together information on the effects of green infrastructure and stormwater management on watershed health in specific regions. There is very little hard data with numbers like that. EPA suggested enlisting help from colleges and watershed societies to do this research and compile these numbers. Where the research can continue:
ReferencesChesapeake Bay Foundation. CBF, 2014. Web. 29 Apr 2014.
Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Polluted Runoff: How Investing in Runoff Pollution Control Systems Improves theChesapeake Bay Regions Ecology, Economy, and Health. CBF. Jan 2014. Web. 29 Apr 2014.
Chesapeake Bay Foundation. What is the Value of the Chesapeake Bay and Virginias Waterways? CBF. 10 Apr 2014. Web. 29 Apr 2014.
Chesapeake Bay Watershed Map of Impervious Surfaces. Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Map. Web. 29 Apr 2014.
EPA. Using Smart Growth Strategies to Create More Resilient Communities in the Washington, D.C. Region. Nov 2013. Web. Apr 29 2014. http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/mwcog-guidebook-final-508-111313.pdf
Field Sports Concepts. Chesapeake Bay Environmental Groups Clash Over Nutrient Trading. Photograph. 29 May 2012. Web. 29 Apr 2014.http://fieldsportconcepts.wordpress.com/2012/05/29/chesapeake-bay-environmental-groups-clash-over-nutrient-trading/
Green City Clean Waters. Philadelphia Water Department. Film. Web. 18 Apr 2014. www.phillywatersheds.org
Green City Clean Waters (3 min Promo). Philadelphia Water Department. Film. Web. 29 Apr 2014. www.phillywatersheds.org
National Wildlife Federation. Chesapeake Bay, 2014. NWF. Web. 29 Apr 2014.
Nikki Davis. Sprawl Development. 2014. Chesapeake Bay Foundation website. Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Web. 29 Apr 2014.
Polluted Runoff Is Increasing in the Chesapeake Day Watershed. Chesapeake Bay Program 2011 Model. Chart. Web. 29 Apr 2014.
Unsavory Characters. Chesapeake Bay Foundation. Film. Web. 29 Apr 2014.