assyrian geography

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  • 1. Assyria The Empire Assyria was a great empire that spanned over four countries. It was a empire that had a strong army, advanced technology and a influential Religion.

2. Assyrian GeographyAssyria was a great empire but it was greatly affected by the climate its people lived in. Geography and climate affectswhat you eat what you where and the culture that you live in. 3. Placement of the Assyrian empire

  • Assyria spans 4 countries in the northern part of Mesopotamia
  • To the west it reaches the Euphrates River
  • To the north it extends to the point of Lake Van
  • To the east it reaches Lake Urmi
  • Both the Euphrates and the Tigris Rivers run in the empires area
  • Tourus and Zagros mountains lie north east of where Assyria was
  • To the south west is a enormous limestone plateau
  • In the south lie alluvium with is dumped on the land by the Tigris when the river floods
  • Even further south lies land that doesn't have enough rainfall to hold agriculture
  • These two inhabitable areas mark the boundaries to Assyria and its neighbors

4. Farmland and Water Supply

  • The Assyrians lived on flat exposed farmland
  • Land was fertile and every region in the empire ad fields of produce
  • Two critical crop producers in the empire where the people of the Arbel plain and the Nineveh plain
  • These groups helped Assyrians receive food needed to feed its enormous population
  • And because of the surplus the empire was able to advance and expand their civilization and its art
  • Their lack of natural barriers like mountains or rivers it meant they needed to build a strong army
  • The Assyrians like the Egyptians where a river valley civilization
  • The Assyrians depended on the Tigris river for water for transportation and for trading

5. Climate

  • On the lime stone plateau it was cold and wet in the winters
  • Warmin summer
  • Apples where grown along figs, olives , pomegranates ,almonds ,mulberries ,and vines where grown as well
  • A multitude of grains where also harvested such as barley and wheat
  • Rice was grown and popular in Babylonia
  • Cotton was alsogrown
  • The people wore knee length tunics
  • Clothing was mostly made of wool but linen was used for nicer quality garments
  • They grew onions but considered to be peasant food
  • Onion leeks and Garlic plants where grown plentifully in the Assyrians gardens
  • Knew there fungi as they knew both poisons and non poisons mushrooms

6. Animals

  • The Assyrians also hunted for food besides the trading and crops that they grew
  • In the nearby forests lions lived
  • Wild bull lived in the plains
  • Also in the plains where wild asses, wild goats, and Gazelles
  • Mastiffs (very big dog) where tamed and used for hunting
  • Horses where imported from other lands
  • Pelicans trained for fishing
  • The people hunted Fowl like thrushes sparrows and larks
  • Fishing was done by line and through means of nets
  • Fish eaten both fresh and dried as bigger fish would usually be dried for future purposes

7.

  • In conclusion Assyria was affected by its climate and geography. Its climate and geography affected what they wore what they lived in and what they ate as well

8.

  • As a result, the Assyrians created and useddevices that had helped them conquer nations and also assisted with everyday life.

9. War and Construction

  • mud brick construction: is a technique to build massive palaces with sculptures that portrayed battles and victories.
  • pontoons: floating structures used to support bridge; used them for crossing a river.
  • ladders: troops used them to climb up enemys city walls.
  • iron daggers and swords: weapons used by Assyrian army
  • iron tipped battering rams: used to destroy the enemys city walls.

10. Inventions and Ideas

  • locks and keys were first used.
  • sexagesimal system of keeping time was developed.
  • developed medicine that eventually influenced doctors as far away as Europe.
  • first to divide a circle into 360 degrees and invented the concept of longitude and latitude

11. Inventions and Ideas (Cont.)

  • Akkadian language was written on clay tablets.
  • Arameans had introduced a language and the idea of writing on parchment, leather, or papyrus; knew the it would replace the original Assyrian language because of the technological breakthrough in writing.
  • a piece of rock crystal unearthed and was discovered in Northern Iraq; possibly used as an telescope, which implies Assyrias advanced understanding of Astronomy

12.

  • As a result, the Assyrians created and useddevices that had helped them conquer nations and also assisted with everyday life.

13. Assyrian Religion Anastasiya Sergeyeva 14. Intro The ancient Assyrian religion existed as a belief system for 1300 years. Assyrian religion originatedinSumer and Akkad . The Assyrians were polytheistic. They performed rituals and ceremonies, and built temples for their gods. They had religious celebrations. And they put a negative view on death. 15. Gods/Deities *Assyrians were polytheistic. They recognized thousands of gods, but only about twenty were important in actual practice.Assyrian Gods: Adad :Weather God, God of storms, creator and destroyer, God of Heaven, God of oracles and divination. The number six, the lion and the bull were sacred to him and his symbol was the cypress.Ashur : National God and God of WarAtrahasis : Only survivor, of the flood that destroyed mankind.Bel : "Master", applied to Enlil and Marduk.Lamassu : Protective spirits in the form of winged bulls with a human head. Carved around the throne of Sargon with 5 legs, (so that it looked like they were walking). Mah :Earth Goddess.Mutu : God of Underworld. Pazuzu : Demon king of the evil wind who protects humans from plague and evil.Sulmanu : God of war and the Underworld. Assyrian Deities: Assur / Anshar : patron of AssurIshta r : the goddess of love and war, patroness of Nineveh Adramelech As Shalla : the Assyrian goddess of grainAnasas : god of medicineNishraeli Nisroch : god of agricultureNimrud OannesNabuSamnuhaKubaba 16. Temples Temples were built for all the various gods. In Assyrian religion it was assumed that a god or a goddess needed a home, or a place where humans could communicate with a god/goddess. The various gods were thought of as residing in cosmic places. They were also present in their idol, and lived in the temple as a king in his palace. The temples had an open court with fountains for ablution and altars for sacrifices. The indoor part of the temple contained the dwellings of the god. The god/goddess was represented with a statue. The most important gods were honored at large temples. The temples varied in size according to the god's importance. In these temples daily ceremonies were held. The monthly and yearly rituals were the most important. 17. Ceremonies/ Religious Sacrifices/Celebrations There were ceremonies and sacrifices to worship a god or goddess or group of deities. These ceremonies included, animal sacrifices, ritualistic purification, libations, sprinkling of water, and symbolical rites of all kinds.In ancient times the most important celebration of the year was Akitu. It is the new year according to the ancient Assyrian calendar. In ancient times, the event was held in the first month of the year (Nissanu). 18. MarriageAn ancient Assyrian marriage contract reads: Laqipum has married Hatala, daughter of Enishru in the country Laqipum [and] may not marry another [woman] in the City. He may marry a hierodule. If within two years she does not provide him with [an] offspring, she [must] purchase a slave woman. [If she does produce an offspring,] he may dispose of her by sale [or however] he pleases. Should Laqipum choose to divorce her, he must pay five minas of silver [to her] and should Hatala choose to divorce him, she must pay five minas of silver [to him]. Witnessed by: Masa, Ashurishtikal, Talia, Shupianika. (Finkelstein) 19. Death Death in and Assyrian religion was not viewed optimistically. The spirit of the dead would go to the underworld. There wasnt any paradise or hope for any rewards for the righteous. The spirits would go to a large dark cavern below the earth,in which all the dead were gathered and they led a miserable existence of inactivity. Occasionally a favored individual was permitted to escape from this fate and placed in a pleasant island. It appeared that the rulers were always singled out for divine grace, owing to the prevailing view that the rulers stood nearer to the gods than other mortals. 20. The Assyrians 21.

  • The Assyrians have long been known as a ruthless and barbaric people of the ancient civilizations.
  • While this may be true in some instances, it is not an entirely accurate view of the Empire of Assyria.
  • The Assyrians even had special schools set up to teach sapping (military demolition of walls etc.) and mining city walls

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