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<ul><li><p>AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms:ACaseStudyofPawaga,TanzaniaHollySanders&amp;JenniferFittsMastersProjectMay2011</p></li><li><p>AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms</p><p>AcknowledgementsWewouldliketothanktheLazarFoundationandtheNicholasSchooloftheEnvironmentatDukeUniversityforfundingthesitevisitandresearch.WearealsogratefultoDr.ErikaWeinthalforherhelpandguidancethroughouttheproject.</p></li><li><p>AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms</p><p>TableofContents</p><p>INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................1Sustainability...............................................................................................................................................................................3CaseSelection..............................................................................................................................................................................4Methodology.................................................................................................................................................................................5</p><p>BACKGROUND........................................................................................................................6ThePawagaRegion...................................................................................................................................................................7</p><p>FRAMEWORK..........................................................................................................................9OperationandMaintenance...............................................................................................................................................10TypeandAppropriatenessoftheSystem......................................................................................................................10WaterTreatment.....................................................................................................................................................................13AvailabilityofSpareParts...................................................................................................................................................16</p><p>MonitoringandEvaluation.................................................................................................................................................18FinancialandEconomicConsiderations.......................................................................................................................21CommunityandCivilSociety.............................................................................................................................................23ProgramDemand....................................................................................................................................................................23SocialCapital.............................................................................................................................................................................25CapacityBuilding.....................................................................................................................................................................27</p><p>InstitutionalCapacity............................................................................................................................................................29Governance.................................................................................................................................................................................30FemaleParticipation..............................................................................................................................................................32</p><p>DISCUSSIONANDRECOMMENDATIONS...............................................................................33RecommendationsforthePawagaSustainableDevelopmentProgramme..................................................35RecommendationsforTearfundUKandotherStakeholdersintheWSSSector........................................37</p><p>CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................39</p><p>REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................40</p><p>APPENDICES.........................................................................................................................42AppendixA.HouseholdSurveyQuestions...................................................................................................................42AppendixB.SurveyResults................................................................................................................................................43AppendixC.ListofAbbreviations....................................................................................................................................44</p></li><li><p>Sanders&amp;Fitts2011</p><p>AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms</p><p>1</p><p>INTRODUCTION</p><p>WithitssloganWaterandSanitationforAll,theInternationalDrinkingSupplyand</p><p>SanitationDecade(19811990)broughttotheinternationalstagetheestimated1.8billion</p><p>peoplearound40%oftheworldstotalpopulationthatlackedasafedrinkingwater</p><p>supply.Accesswasmostlimitedtothoselivinginruralcommunities,Africabeingtheworst</p><p>whereonly22%ofruralpeoplehadaccesstoasafesupply(Black1985).WhiletheDecade,</p><p>andothersimilareffortsoverthepast30years,succeededatsheddinglightonthis</p><p>ongoingglobalproblem,itdidlittleinthewayofachievinganysignificantquantifiable</p><p>goals.Today,over1billionpeoplestilllackaccesstoaclean,safe,andreliabledrinking</p><p>watersupply(RWSN2010).Consequently,nearly1.5millionpeople(mostlychildren)die</p><p>eachyearfromwaterborneillness(water.org2011).</p><p>Withthehelpofforeigndonors,manyattemptshavebeenmadetoprovidesafe</p><p>drinkingwatersuppliestocommunitiesthroughoutthedevelopingworld.Unfortunately,</p><p>manyofthesehavefailed.Forexample,ithasbeenestimatedthatthehandpump,which</p><p>providesnearlyhalfoftheprotectedwatersuppliesforAfricasruralpopulation,hasan</p><p>estimatedfunctionalityrateofapproximately66%(RSWN2010).Acloserlookattheissue</p><p>revealedthatcommunitieswheresuchsystemshadbeeninstalledlackedasenseof</p><p>ownershipfortheinfrastructureanditsservice.Asaresult,whentheybrokedownthe</p><p>communitydidnotseetheproblemasbeingtheirs.Eveniftheyhad,thecommunitylacked</p><p>theknowledge,resources,andcapacitytorepairthesystem(Black1985).Thekeyissues</p><p>thatemergedfromthefailureofthesecentralizedsystemshavedominatedthewaterand</p><p>sanitationsectorforthepastthreedecades.</p></li><li><p>Sanders&amp;Fitts2011</p><p>AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms</p><p>2</p><p>Toaddressthiscrisis,theUnitedNationslaunchedanotherglobalinitiativetotackle</p><p>theongoingfailuresofwatersupplyprojectsindevelopingcountries.In2000,theUN</p><p>establishedtheMillenniumDevelopmentGoals(MDGs)toreducepoverty,improvehealth,</p><p>andpromotesustainability.Target10ofGoal7ensuringenvironmentalsustainability</p><p>setsatargettohalvetheproportionofpeopleintheworldwholackaccesstosafedrinking</p><p>waterby2015(UNDP2011).ThoughgreatstrideshavebeenmadesincetheMDGswere</p><p>adoptedin2000,muchofAfrica,especiallytheSubSaharanregion,isnotontracktomeet</p><p>theMDGdrinkingwatertarget(UN2006).</p><p>Figure1.ProgresstowardMDGdrinkingwatertarget(UN2006)</p><p>Thegoalofthispaperistoidentify,throughtheliteratureandinsituresearch,</p><p>whichaspectsoftheseprojectsarefailingandwhicharemostvitalinensuringarobust</p><p>watersupplyprogramisimplemented.Thispaperoutlinesacomprehensiveframeworkfor</p></li><li><p>Sanders&amp;Fitts2011</p><p>AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms</p><p>3</p><p>assessingthesustainabilityofruralwatersupplyprograms,incorporatingthesuccesses</p><p>andfailuresofpreviousattempts.Toviewthisframeworkthroughthelensofanexisting</p><p>ruralwatersupplyprogram,weapplyittothePawagaSustainableDevelopment</p><p>ProgrammeinTanzaniaasspecifiedbyourMastersProjectclient,TearfundUK.Tearfund</p><p>isanagencythatfundsreliefanddevelopmentprojectsworldwide,includingthatin</p><p>Pawaga,andisinterestedinpursuingandsupportingsustainableprograms.</p><p>WhilethepaperisprimarilyfocusedonAfrica,thegoalofthisprojectremainstwo</p><p>fold:(1)todevelopaframeworkforassessingthesustainabilityofruralwaterprograms</p><p>thatwillhelpeducateandinformruralwatersupplystakeholders,globally,aboutthe</p><p>importanceofsustainabilityandmeanstoachievingit;(2)toprovideourpartner,</p><p>TearfundUKoneofthedonorsofthecasestudywithanindepthanalysisofthe</p><p>robustnessandsustainabilityofPawagaProgram.</p><p>Sustainability</p><p>TheconceptofsustainabledevelopmentexplodedintheliteratureaftertheWorld</p><p>CommissiononEnvironmentandDevelopmentslandmarkreport,OurCommonFuture</p><p>waspublishedbyin1987(Black1985).Sustainabilitywassoonadoptedbythose</p><p>providingwaterandsanitationservicestomeanserviceandmanagementshouldbecost</p><p>effective,takingintoaccountconstraintsontheresourceitself,andontheavailabilityof</p><p>financialresources(Black1985).Sustainabilityisnowacommontermintheruralwater</p><p>supplysector.However,sustainabilityrhetoricisoftenjustthat,asgovernments,non</p><p>governmentalorganizations(NGOs),andexternalagencieslackatangibleplanforactually</p><p>achievingtheconcept.Inanefforttoconcretizethegoal,HarveyandReed(2003)have</p></li><li><p>Sanders&amp;Fitts2011</p><p>AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms</p><p>4</p><p>offeredthisdefinitionforasustainableruralwatersupply,whichwillbereferredto</p><p>throughoutthispaper:</p><p>Thewater sourcesarenotoverexploitedbutnaturally replenished, facilitiesaremaintainedinaconditionwhichensuresareliableandadequatewatersupply,thebenefitsofthesupplycontinuetoberealizedbyallusersoveraprolongedperiodof time, and the service delivery process demonstrates a costeffective use ofresourcesthatcanbereplicated. </p><p>CaseSelection</p><p>Forthepurposeofthisanalysis,wehavefocusedontheregionofPawaga,Tanzania,</p><p>whichissituatedintheIringaRuralDistrict.Theresearchsitewasselectedforits</p><p>connectiontotheclientorganization,TearfundUK,andforitsexemplificationofthewater</p><p>supplyandsanitationproblemsfacing</p><p>muchofsubSaharanAfrica.</p><p>AsseeninFigure1,thisSub</p><p>Saharancountryisnotcurrentlyon</p><p>tracktomeettheMDGdrinkingwater</p><p>target.Asof2006,drinkingwater</p><p>coveragewas5060%inTanzania(UN</p><p>2006)withonly45%ofruralresidents</p><p>and54%oftheentirecountryhaving</p><p>receivedimprovedwatersources(WB</p><p>2008).Asaresult,residentsofrural</p><p>Tanzaniasufferfrommanyofthe</p><p>typicalwaterbornediseases,suchasdiarrhea,cholera,andtyphoidfever.Thegovernment</p><p>reportsdiarrheaandintestinalwormsastwoofthetopfivediseasesaffectingresidentsof</p><p>Figure2.MaphighlightingIringaRuralDistrict</p></li><li><p>Sanders&amp;Fitts2011</p><p>AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms</p><p>5</p><p>thearea.In2005,over20,000individualslivingintheIringaRuralDistrict(wherePawaga</p><p>islocated)weresufferingfromoneofthesetwodiseases(TZ2010).</p><p>Methodology</p><p>Inthecourseofbuildingourframework,wetraveledtoIringa,Tanzaniatostudya</p><p>ruralwatersupplyprogrambeingimplementedin8villagesofthePawagaRuralDistrict.</p><p>Ourassessmentoftheprogramwasconductedduringthesummerof2010,when</p><p>constructionoftheinfrastructurewasstillunderway.Theprimarycomponentofour</p><p>researchwastravelingtothesiteandconductinginterviewswiththreeimportant</p><p>stakeholders:programleaders,engineers,andcommunitymembersintheprogramregion.</p><p>WeworkedcloselyalongsidethewomenoftheDioceseofRuaha(basedinIringaTown,</p><p>TZ),whosharedwithusanarrativehistoryoftheregion,thecommunitysneed,andthe</p><p>programuptothatpoint.Weconductedopenendedinterviewswiththetwoprimary</p><p>leadersandaccompaniedthemonseveraltripstothePawagaregiontoparticipatein</p><p>communitytrainingsessionsandotherroutinebusiness.</p><p>OurtimeinthefieldcoincidedwithvisitsfromboththeDirectorandtheProject</p><p>EngineerofChristianEngineersinDevelopment(CED),thetechnicalpartnerforthe</p><p>program.Ourinteractionwithboththeprogramleadersandtheengineerswere</p><p>invaluable,buttherewasstillmuchtobelearnedfromthecommunitymembers</p><p>themselves.Togettheirperspective,weinterviewed46families(usuallythefemaleofthe</p><p>household)in3ofthe8villages.SurveyquestionsareincludedinAppendixA.After</p><p>conductingallinterviews,notesandaudiorecordingswereanalyzedtoidentifycommon</p></li><li><p>Sanders&amp;Fitts2011</p><p>AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms</p><p>6</p><p>themesandanydivergentpointsofview.Elicitedinformation,attitudes,andperspectives</p><p>ofallthreepartiesarewovenintothesustainabilityframeworkbelow.</p><p>BACKGROUND</p><p>Intheyearsfollowingthecolonialera,manyAfricangovernmentsrapidlyinstalled</p><p>ruralwatersupplysystems,mostofwhichfailed,inlargepartduetotheissuesformally</p><p>discussed.Aswastraditionatthetime,governmentscontinuedtoimplementprojects</p><p>usingtopdownbureaucraticbehaviorandpracticingupwardaccountability(AfDB2010).</p><p>Thisessentiallyleftcitizenswithoutresponsibilityfortheirownwellbeing,andthe</p><p>wellbeingoftheirnearbydrinkingwaterschemes.AsWhittington(2009)saidof</p><p>developingcountries:</p><p>Systemswerenotbeingrepairedandwerefallingintodisuse.Costrecoverywasminimalandrevenueswereofteninsufficienttopayforevenoperationandmaintenance,muchlesscapitalcosts.Communitiesdidnothaveasenseofownershipintheirwaterprojectsandhouseholdswerenotsatisfiedwiththeprojectsthatdonorsandnationalgovernmentsinstalled(p697).</p><p>Inthewakeofthiswatersupplystructureanditsmanyfailures,the1980swereatimeof</p><p>majoremphasis,bothwithindevelopmentagenciesandnationalgovernments,on</p><p>increasinginlocalparticipationthroughoutthesector(AfDB2008).Inspiteofthis</p><p>improvement,commonsectorstrategyhasfocusedonfastproductionofnewsystems,</p><p>sidesteppingissuesofprolongedparticipationandcommunityempowerment(MoritaLou</p><p>etal.2008).GiventhatmuchofAfricaisnotontracktomeetingtheMDGsdrinkingwater</p><p>target,thereremainsanongoingneedtoimplementcommunitybasedwatersupply</p><p>programsinruralregions.</p></li><li><p>Sanders&amp;Fitts2011</p><p>AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms</p><p>7</p><p>ThePawagaRegion</p><p>ThePawagaregionislocatedintheSouthernHighlandsofcentralTanzania,within</p><p>theIringaRuralDistrict.Itishometoapproximately23,000people,manyofwhomlack</p><p>consistentaccesstosafewater,andissituatedabout800kmabovesealevel,whererainfall</p><p>islowandsemiaridconditionsdominatetheclimate.Inthe1950'sand1960's,the</p><p>nationalgovernmentputinawatersupplysystemwithhelpoflocalauthorities.After</p><p>independencein1961,thissystemcontinuedtoworkunderthegovernmentalstructure</p><p>forafewyears.Duringthistime,theNativeAuthoritywasanimportantpartofindirect</p><p>governmentrule,responsibleformaintainingwatersupplyinruralandtribalareas.Tribal</p><p>Chiefswereleadersofvariouscommunitiesandgovernmentadministrationwasdone</p><p>throughdistricttribalcouncils.Asamovetowardlocalgovernance,districtcommittees</p><p>workedthroughtribalchiefs;later,thisorganizationformedtheCentralExecutiveCouncil.</p><p>OncetheCentralExecutiveCommitteewasformed,theNativeAuthoritywasdeemedno</p><p>longerappropriateforlocalgovernance,anditsresponsibilitiesabandoned(Holloway</p><p>2010).AssimilarchangesoccurredinmanyotherregionsaroundAfricaatthistime,</p><p>thousandsofpeoplewereagainunabletoaccesssafewater.</p><p>Respondingtotheseneeds,theDioceseofRuaha,whichwasestablishedin1990</p><p>undertheleadershipofRev.DonaldMtetemelatosupportlocalcommunitydevelopment</p><p>(Tearfund2009),decidedtoundertakeawatersupplyandsanitationprograminPawaga</p><p>District.In2008,theDioceseofRuahapartneredwithChristianEngineersinDevelopment</p><p>(CED),aUKbasedchar...</p></li></ul>

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