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  • AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms:ACaseStudyofPawaga,TanzaniaHollySanders&JenniferFittsMastersProjectMay2011

  • AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms

    AcknowledgementsWewouldliketothanktheLazarFoundationandtheNicholasSchooloftheEnvironmentatDukeUniversityforfundingthesitevisitandresearch.WearealsogratefultoDr.ErikaWeinthalforherhelpandguidancethroughouttheproject.

  • AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms

    TableofContents

    INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................1Sustainability...............................................................................................................................................................................3CaseSelection..............................................................................................................................................................................4Methodology.................................................................................................................................................................................5

    BACKGROUND........................................................................................................................6ThePawagaRegion...................................................................................................................................................................7

    FRAMEWORK..........................................................................................................................9OperationandMaintenance...............................................................................................................................................10TypeandAppropriatenessoftheSystem......................................................................................................................10WaterTreatment.....................................................................................................................................................................13AvailabilityofSpareParts...................................................................................................................................................16

    MonitoringandEvaluation.................................................................................................................................................18FinancialandEconomicConsiderations.......................................................................................................................21CommunityandCivilSociety.............................................................................................................................................23ProgramDemand....................................................................................................................................................................23SocialCapital.............................................................................................................................................................................25CapacityBuilding.....................................................................................................................................................................27

    InstitutionalCapacity............................................................................................................................................................29Governance.................................................................................................................................................................................30FemaleParticipation..............................................................................................................................................................32

    DISCUSSIONANDRECOMMENDATIONS...............................................................................33RecommendationsforthePawagaSustainableDevelopmentProgramme..................................................35RecommendationsforTearfundUKandotherStakeholdersintheWSSSector........................................37

    CONCLUSION........................................................................................................................39

    REFERENCES.........................................................................................................................40

    APPENDICES.........................................................................................................................42AppendixA.HouseholdSurveyQuestions...................................................................................................................42AppendixB.SurveyResults................................................................................................................................................43AppendixC.ListofAbbreviations....................................................................................................................................44

  • Sanders&Fitts2011

    AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms

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    INTRODUCTION

    WithitssloganWaterandSanitationforAll,theInternationalDrinkingSupplyand

    SanitationDecade(19811990)broughttotheinternationalstagetheestimated1.8billion

    peoplearound40%oftheworldstotalpopulationthatlackedasafedrinkingwater

    supply.Accesswasmostlimitedtothoselivinginruralcommunities,Africabeingtheworst

    whereonly22%ofruralpeoplehadaccesstoasafesupply(Black1985).WhiletheDecade,

    andothersimilareffortsoverthepast30years,succeededatsheddinglightonthis

    ongoingglobalproblem,itdidlittleinthewayofachievinganysignificantquantifiable

    goals.Today,over1billionpeoplestilllackaccesstoaclean,safe,andreliabledrinking

    watersupply(RWSN2010).Consequently,nearly1.5millionpeople(mostlychildren)die

    eachyearfromwaterborneillness(water.org2011).

    Withthehelpofforeigndonors,manyattemptshavebeenmadetoprovidesafe

    drinkingwatersuppliestocommunitiesthroughoutthedevelopingworld.Unfortunately,

    manyofthesehavefailed.Forexample,ithasbeenestimatedthatthehandpump,which

    providesnearlyhalfoftheprotectedwatersuppliesforAfricasruralpopulation,hasan

    estimatedfunctionalityrateofapproximately66%(RSWN2010).Acloserlookattheissue

    revealedthatcommunitieswheresuchsystemshadbeeninstalledlackedasenseof

    ownershipfortheinfrastructureanditsservice.Asaresult,whentheybrokedownthe

    communitydidnotseetheproblemasbeingtheirs.Eveniftheyhad,thecommunitylacked

    theknowledge,resources,andcapacitytorepairthesystem(Black1985).Thekeyissues

    thatemergedfromthefailureofthesecentralizedsystemshavedominatedthewaterand

    sanitationsectorforthepastthreedecades.

  • Sanders&Fitts2011

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    Toaddressthiscrisis,theUnitedNationslaunchedanotherglobalinitiativetotackle

    theongoingfailuresofwatersupplyprojectsindevelopingcountries.In2000,theUN

    establishedtheMillenniumDevelopmentGoals(MDGs)toreducepoverty,improvehealth,

    andpromotesustainability.Target10ofGoal7ensuringenvironmentalsustainability

    setsatargettohalvetheproportionofpeopleintheworldwholackaccesstosafedrinking

    waterby2015(UNDP2011).ThoughgreatstrideshavebeenmadesincetheMDGswere

    adoptedin2000,muchofAfrica,especiallytheSubSaharanregion,isnotontracktomeet

    theMDGdrinkingwatertarget(UN2006).

    Figure1.ProgresstowardMDGdrinkingwatertarget(UN2006)

    Thegoalofthispaperistoidentify,throughtheliteratureandinsituresearch,

    whichaspectsoftheseprojectsarefailingandwhicharemostvitalinensuringarobust

    watersupplyprogramisimplemented.Thispaperoutlinesacomprehensiveframeworkfor

  • Sanders&Fitts2011

    AssessingtheSustainabilityofRuralWaterSupplyPrograms

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    assessingthesustainabilityofruralwatersupplyprograms,incorporatingthesuccesses

    andfailuresofpreviousattempts.Toviewthisframeworkthroughthelensofanexisting

    ruralwatersupplyprogram,weapplyittothePawagaSustainableDevelopment

    ProgrammeinTanzaniaasspecifiedbyourMastersProjectclient,TearfundUK.Tearfund

    isanagencythatfundsreliefanddevelopmentprojectsworldwide,includingthatin

    Pawaga,andisinterestedinpursuingandsupportingsustainableprograms.

    WhilethepaperisprimarilyfocusedonAfrica,thegoalofthisprojectremainstwo

    fold:(1)todevelopaframeworkforassessingthesustainabilityofruralwaterprograms

    thatwillhelpeducateandinformruralwatersupplystakeholders,globally,aboutthe

    importanceofsustainabilityandmeanstoachievingit;(2)toprovideourpartner,

    TearfundUKoneofthedonorsofthecasestudywithanindepthanalysisofthe

    robustnessandsustainabilityofPawagaProgram.

    Sustainability

    TheconceptofsustainabledevelopmentexplodedintheliteratureaftertheWorld

    CommissiononEnvironmentandDevelopmentslandmarkreport,OurCommonFuture

    waspublishedbyin1987(Black1985).Sustainabilitywassoonadoptedbythose

    providingwaterandsanitationservicestomeanserviceandmanagementshouldbecost

    effective,takingintoaccountconstraintsontheresourceitself,andontheavailabilityof

    financialresources(Black1985).Sustainabilityisnowacommontermintheruralwater

    supplysector.However,sustainabilityrhetoricisoftenjustthat,asgovernments,non

    governmentalorganizations(NGOs),andexternalagencieslackatangibleplanforactually

    achievingtheconcept.Inanefforttoconcretizethegoal,HarveyandReed(2003)have

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    offeredthisdefinitionforasustainableruralwatersupply,whichwillbereferredto

    throughoutthispaper:

    Thewater sourcesarenotoverexploitedbutnaturally replenished,

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