Assessing the impact of micro-generation technologies on local sustainability
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Keywords:Municipal Energy PlanningEnergy scenarioMicro-generationMicro-CHP systemsRenewable sources
The work addresses the role of local energy planning for the introduction of low carbon policies to
and international authorities.Several are the initiatives launched worldwide to stress on the
role that communities can play to combat climate change, suchas Agenda 21, the EU-Cities Adapt initiative  and the Covenant
ocietal grouuence how
adapt to climate change .The involvement of Local Authorities, LAs, in the energ
ning process mainly derives from: (i) the site specic narenewable sources, (ii) their nearer connection to citizens, whoplay a central role in the new energy paradigm and (iii) their priv-ilege perspective, being the rst institutional actors involved in theenergy planning process.
As widely discussed in  LAs can act as: (i) regulator, develop-ing building codes suitable for implementing adaptation and miti-gation strategies, (ii) manager, reducing the energy consumption
Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 (0) 28 903 68166; fax: +44 (0) 28 903 66988.E-mail addresses: email@example.com (C. Brandoni), alessia.arteconi@
uniecampus.it (A. Arteconi), firstname.lastname@example.org (G. Ciriachi), email@example.com (F. Polonara).
Energy Conversion and Management xxx (2014) xxxxxx
Contents lists availab
lsecosts.Since climate impact and vulnerability varies among regions, a
bottom-up approach involving local governments must be com-bined with a top-down approach, involving national governments
sequent increase in CO2 emissions and primaryabout 7080% .
Local governments are able to inuence how senergy resources, limiting their access, and inhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.04.0700196-8904/ 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Please cite this article in press as: Brandoni C et al. Assessing the impact of micro-generation technologies on local sustainability. Energy Convers M(2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.04.070ps usethey
y plan-ture of1. Introduction
According to IPCC , even below the level of 2 C of tempera-ture increase, a signicant impact in climate condition will occur,thus mitigation and adaptation policies must be introduced toincrease resilience and reduce economic, environmental and social
of Majors frameworks, a EU program aimed at exceeding the 20%emission reduction target that has been joint by about 5 thousandscities so far.
The interest in how cities use energy resources has beenenforced by an increase in urbanisation . As a matter of fact, itis expected that 60% of people will be urban by 2050, with a con-achieve challenging climate targets. Taking as reference case an urban area that aims to become Sustain-able Community, several initiatives have been assessed. Two target years, 2020 and 2050, have been ana-lysed with the aid of EnergyPlan, an integrated energy system model based on the hourly energy demandand supply able to consider constraints deriving from grid stability. The effects of climate change, denedby a regional climate model, have been analysed in the long-term scenario. The work focuses on theimpact of a high share of micro-generation technologies for satisfying the energy demand of the buildingsector, following an original comprehensive approach that helps a better understanding of the implica-tion of such low carbon policy. Both solar devices and micro-combined heat and power systems havebeen taken into account, the latter covering different technologies (i.e. internal combustion engines, Stir-ling engines, microturbines and fuel cells). Results show that the use of a high share of micro-generationtechnologies can help to reduce CO2 emissions and enable an increase in large-scale intermittent renew-able production, only if a coordinated local energy plan combined with an optimal operation strategy ispursued. Moreover the work outlines the importance of developing an integrated energy system forintroducing such technologies that can help to: (i) decarbonise the building sector, (ii) increase energysecurity and iii) postpone the investments in new network capacity.
2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c tAssessing the impact of micro-generationsustainability
Caterina Brandoni a,, Alessia Arteconi b, Giovanni CiaCentre for Sustainable Technologies, School of the Built Environment, University of UlsbUniversit degli studi e-Campus, Via Isimbardi 10, 22060 Novedrate, CO, ItalycUniversit Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Scienze Matematiche e Ingegneria
journal homepage: www.eechnologies on local
chi c, Fabio Polonara c
ewtownabbey, Co Antrim BT370QB, UK
ustriale, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
le at ScienceDirect
vier .com/ locate /enconmananage
demand mismatch, the technical constraints for the grid stabiliza-tion and the intermittence of renewable production.
n anon public ownerships and (iii) promoters, supporting sustainableinitiatives.
In order to correctly assess the impact of low carbon initiativeson a territory, it is necessary to consider their reciprocal inuenceon the energy system.
The introduction of electric vehicles, for instance, can posi-tively or negatively affects the electricity grid depending on thetiming of charging, which should be studied considering the elec-tricity production of distributed generation . The identicationof the right timing can, indeed, improve the system operationavoiding investments in the infrastructure upgrades that wouldbe necessary otherwise when decentralised energy productionincreases .
Moreover in the long-term planning, the impact of climatechange needs also to be considered . The analysis of the effectof climate changes can help to identify the most suitable mitiga-tion policy, able to meet adaptation targets, thus reducing the costfor citizens. For example, the use of the thermal power recoveredby CHP systems for desalination purposes in coastal areas can meetthe goal of reducing the electrical decit of a territory, while at thesame time improving ground-water quality and reducing thehydro-geological risk .
The present paper addresses the main mitigation policies for anurban area, Corinaldo, in the Central Italy, focusing on the intro-duction of a high share of micro-generation and micro-combinedheat and power systems for the building sector and their impacton the grid.
As highlighted by IEA recommendation , micro-generationis an important instrument for decarbonising the building sector,whose incidence in the total energy demand ranges between 35% and 40% .
It has been demonstrated that micro-generation technologiescan strongly help to reduce primary energy usage in buildings, reduce carbon dioxide emissions , increasing the energysecurity, improving the voltage prole, allowing for network
BAU Business and UsualEC European CommissionEVs electric vehiclesEEX electricity excessCHP combined heat and powerEU EuropeIPCC intergovernamental panel of Climate changeLA Local Authority
2 C. Brandoni et al. / Energy Conversiocapacity investments deferral .The area analysed, although characterised by a number of
inhabitants of about 5000, has a high incidence of energy produc-tion from renewable . This is quite a common situation for verysmall urban areas, as demonstrated by a recent report , whichreveals that the 67% of urban areas belonging to the highest-ranking position for renewable energy production are character-ised by lower than 5000 inhabitants. Although they have moredifculties in nancing initiatives, in fact, they can take advantageof a more direct connection to citizens and of the motivation oflocal administrations that can foster private initiatives .
Firstly, the paper addresses the effect of short and long-termenergy policies dened by the Municipal Energy Plan consideringtwo target years: 2020, 2050. Secondly, the work addresses theeffect of a high-share of micro-generation technologies, with afocus on micro-CHP technologies to satisfy the thermal and electri-cal demand of buildings.
Please cite this article in press as: Brandoni C et al. Assessing the impact of mic(2014), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.04.070Several parameters must be introduced in order to simulatethe energy system, such as: (i) electrical and thermal demandproles of all the economic sectors (i.e. transport, building, indus-try), (ii) global electricity demand (iii) energy supply (iv) charac-teristics of the energy conversion technologies used to satisfythe energy needs (e.g. electric efciency of CHP plants, boilerThe work is organised as follows: Section 2 describes the meth-odology used to assess the energy scenarios; Section 3 presents thelocal energy system under analysis; Section 4 discusses the mainpolices considered; Section 5 shows the simulation results andfocuses on the impact of micro-generation technologies on thegrid; nally some conclusion and remarks are drawn.
2.1. Assessing future energy scenarios
In order to quantitatively assess the effect of low carbon poli-cies in terms of primary energy consumption and emissions, thework uses EnergyPlan, a software tool developed by the Sustain-able Energy Planning Group of Aalborg University, in Denmark.
The model is an integrated energy system model, designed toanalyse national and regional energy planning strategies ,based on the hourly energy demand and supply and consideringconstraints deriving from grid stability.
The model has been widely used also to analyse the integrationo