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What is an Artificial Intelligence?
A branch of computer science dealing with symbolic Non algorithic-Methods of problems solving.It works with pattern matching mechanism ,which attempt to describe objects , events or processes in terms of their qualitative logics and computational relationships. To respond a situation flexibly.To make sense out of ambiguous or contradictory messages.Next>Normal Intelligence
To recognize relative importance of different elements of situations .
Expressing emotions depends upon the situation.
Origin of Artificial Intelligence
Evidence of Artificial Intelligence folklore can be traced back to ancient Egypt
Started from programmable digital computer(pdc) in 1940s
First Ai conference at Dartmount collage in 1956
Dartmount meeting:Artificial Intelligence name adopted.1986--:Rise of machine learning * Major advance in machine learning algorithms and applications
1995--:AI as Science *Integration of learning ,reasoning ,knowledge representation. *AI methods used in vision ,language ,data etc.Next>
Norbert Wiener was one of the first Americans to make observations on the principle of feedback theory. The most familiar example of feedback theory is the thermostat. Wiener theorized that all intelligent behavior was the result of feedback mechanisms. Mechanisms that could possibly be simulated by machines
In 1950 Alan Turing published a landmark paper in which he speculated about the possibility of creating machines with true intelligence. He noted that "intelligence" is difficult to define and devised his famous Turing Test The Turing Test was the first serious proposal in the philosophy of artificial intelligence.
In late 1955, Newell and Simon developed The Logic Theorist, considered by many to be the first AI program. The program, representing each problem as a tree model, would attempt to solve it by selecting the branch that would most likely result in the correct conclusion.
In 1956 John McCarthy regarded as the father of AI, organized a conference to draw the talent and expertise of others interested in machine intelligence for a month of brainstorming. He invited them to Vermont for "The Dartmouth summer research project on artificial intelligence." Next>
How to Design an AI
Over the last 5 decades, AI research has mostly been focusing on solving specific problems .Numerous solutions have been devised and improved to do so efficiently and reliably.
This explains why the field of Artificial Intelligence is split into many branches , ranging from pattern Recognition to Artificial life, including Evolutionary Computation and Planning.How does Artificial Intelligence?Next>
Concepts Required to develop AI
Symbolic Approach(Logic based: taught by humans,to mimic human-intellect,used in 60s)Sub-Symbolic Approach(Pattern based , bottom up approach , mimics the structure of human brain)
Statistical Approach(Database,programmed to analyze itself ,improves on sub-symbolics )
Languages Used to develop AI
LISP & PROLOGLisp(List Processing) is family of computer programming language with a long history and a distinctive , fully parenthesized polish prefix notation. Linked list are one of the Lisp languages.It defines how to perform an algorithm on the expressions.Frames , networks and objects are responsible for LISPs popularity in AI community.It is widely implementing the tools of Artificial Intelligence.Prolog(Programming logic) is a general purpose logic programming language associated with AI and computational linguistics.It is expressed in terms of relations , and a computation is initiated by running a query over the relations.
Functional languageGeneral purposeHandles wide variety of tasks , and its easier to use alsoDont support compared to prologLogical languageSpecific usesSmaller language , easier to learnSupport multifunctional reasoning
(1980s)Semi-automatic sensible mini robotsIndustrial Robots , coded a specific task2nd stage Humanoid Next generation Humanoid : Same as ManStages of AI implementing in Robotics
Applications of A.IExpert SystemNatural Language Processing(NLP)Speech RecognitionComputer Vision Robotics
Expert SystemsAn Expert system is a computer program designed to act as an expert in a particular domain.Domains of E.SKnowledge baseFactsExpert system currently are designed to assist expert s , not to replace them , They have been used in medical diagnosis , chemicals analysis, geological exploration etc.
Natural language processingThe goal is to enable people and computer to communicate in natural language rather than in a computer language.Its generally classified as two
Natural language understanding.
Natural language generation.
Speech RecognitionSpeech recognition is the method of communication used by humans is not reading and writing it is speech.The goal of speech recognition research is to allow computer to understand human speech . So that they can hear our voice and recognize the word we are speaking.Its simplifies the process of interactive communication between people and computer , thus it advances the goal of NLP.
Computer VisionAbility of a machine to extract information from an image that is necessary to solve a task.Image AcquisitionImage Processing Image AnalysisImage Understanding
RoboticsRobot is an electro magnetic device that can be programmed to perform a variety of manual tasks or reprogrammable multi function al manipulators designed to move materials , tools etcIntelligent robots or humanoids include sensory apparatus that allows it to respond to change in its environment.
AI Influences the defense system
Foster-Miller TALON swords (special weapons observation reconnaissance detection system)
A.I in the field of AviationArmed predator drones(US)-It can be used for defense as well as observation purpose also , some of these are designed to carry atomic as well as nuclear weapons . Its an inter continental drone.Black hawk(US):Fully synthesized with artificial intelligence . Even the motions of Pilots are being observed.Black Bird(US):Most powerful Nuclear and atomic carrier .It has a reactor based power source . fully controlled by AI
A.I in Space
Robotics continue to evolve from manufacturing, medicine and remote exploration to entertainment, security and personal assistance.
Japan has announced that they will send the first humanoid robots to the moon.
A.I in daily life
Android : A Linux platform based semi-automatic device. Which is being considered as a part of modern AI GPS: Inter-connected network live program codes , which positions the bootleg location.Brain chip: Technology used to connect humans and device as per wish.
Will they replace us?The day is not so far when you will just sit back in your chair and command your Robo -servent.
He will be a perfect companion for you.Drawbacks:Unemployment will increase.Can be reprogrammed and misuseable against human beings.
Thank You!BY, Harikrishnan