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  • Tr Tu Nhn To (Artificial Intelligence)

    Vin Cng ngh thng tin v Truyn thng Trng i hc Bch Khoa H Ni

    Nm 2016

    Thn Quang Khot

    khoattq@soict.hust.edu.vn

  • Ni dung mn hc: n Gii thiu v Tr tu nhn to

    q nh ngha q Cc nn tng q Lch s tm tt q Cc thnh tu quan trng

    n Tc t

    n Gii quyt vn : Tm kim, Tha mn rng buc

    n Logic v suy din

    n Biu din tri thc

    n Biu din tri thc khng chc chn

    n Hc my

    Tr Tu Nhn To 2

  • nh ngha v TTNT (1) n Cc nh ngha (quan im) v TTNT c chia thnh 4

    nhm:

    q (1) Cc h thng suy ngh (thng minh) nh con ngi n "The exciting new effort to make computers think ... machines with

    minds, in the full and literal sense." (Haugeland, 1985) n "[The automation of] activities that we associate with human thinking,

    activities such as decision-making, problem solving, learning ..." (Bellman, 1978)

    q (2) Cc h thng suy ngh mt cch hp l n "The study of mental faculties through the use of computational

    models." (Charniak and McDermott, 1985) n "The study of the computations that make it possible to

    perceive, reason, and act." (Winston, 1992)

    Tr Tu Nhn To 3

  • nh ngha v TTNT (2) q (3) Cc h thng hnh ng (thng minh) nh con ngi

    n "The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people." (Kurzweil, 1990)

    n "The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better." (Rich and Knight, 1991)

    q (4) Cc h thng hnh ng mt cch hp l n "Computational Intelligence is the study of the design of intelligent

    agents." (Poole et al., 1998) n "AI . . .is concerned with intelligent behavior in artifacts." (Nilsson,

    1998)

    Tr Tu Nhn To 4

  • nh ngha v TTNT (3) n Cc nh ngha (1) v (2) lin quan n cc qu trnh suy ngh

    v suy din

    n Cc nh ngha (3) v (4) lin quan n cch hnh ng

    n Cc nh ngha (1) v (3) nh gi mc thnh cng (s thng minh) theo tiu chun ca con ngi

    n Cc nh ngha (2) v (4) nh gi mc thnh cng (s thng minh) theo tiu chun ca s hp l q Mt h thng hnh ng hp l, nu n lm cc vic ph hp i vi nhng g n (h thng) bit

    Tr Tu Nhn To 5

  • Hnh ng nh con ngi: Turing Test

    n Turing (1950) My tnh ton v s thng minh": n My tnh c th suy ngh c khng?" My tnh c th hnh ng mt cch thng minh c khng?"

    n Th nghim kim chng hnh ng thng minh: Imitation Game

    n D on rng n nm 2000, my tnh s c 30% kh nng vt qua mt ngi khng c chuyn mn i vi mt bi kim tra (Turing test) trong 5 pht

    n Turing (vo nm 1950) d on trc cc vn tranh lun quan trng trong TTNT trong vng 50 nm sau

    n Turing xut cc thnh phn quan trng ca TTNT: tri thc, suy din, hiu ngn ng, hc

    Tr Tu Nhn To 6

  • Suy ngh nh con ngi: Khoa hc nhn thc

    n Cuc cch mng nhn thc nhng nm 1960: q Xem b no ngi nh mt cu trc x l thng tin q Nghin cu v tm l nhn thc thay th cho cc nghin cu

    trc v hnh vi ng x

    n Cn cc l thuyt khoa hc v cc hot ng bn trong ca b no ngi

    n Lm th no xc nhn (kim chng)? Yu cu: 1) D on v kim chng cc hot ng (hnh vi) ca ch th con

    ngi (hng tip cn top-down), hoc 2) Nhn dng (xc nh) trc tip t cc d liu v h thn kinh

    (hng tip cn bottom-up)

    n Hin nay, c 2 hng tip cn ny (Cognitive Science v Cognitive Neuroscience) c tch ri vi lnh vc TTNT

    Tr Tu Nhn To 7

  • Suy ngh hp l: Cc lut suy ngh n Chun ha (hoc quy tc ha), hn l m t n Aristotle: Th no l cc qu trnh suy ngh / tranh lun ng

    n? n Mt s trng hc Hy Lp pht trin nhng dng logic:

    k hiu v cc lut dn xut i vi cc qu trnh suy ngh

    n Mi lin h trc tip, thng qua ton hc v trit hc, i vi khoa hc TTNT hin i

    n Cc vn : 1. Khng phi tt c cc hnh vi (hnh ng) thng minh u

    xut pht t cc cn nhc (suy ngh) logic 2. Mc ch ca s suy ngh l g? Nhng suy ngh no m ti

    nn thc hin, trong s cc suy ngh m ti c th c?

    Tr Tu Nhn To 8

  • Tr Tu Nhn To

    Hnh ng mt cch hp l n Hnh ng mt cch hp l: thc hin ng vic cn

    lm

    n ng vic cn lm: l vic (hnh ng) gip cc i ha vic t c cc mc tiu, i vi cc thng tin hin c

    n Khng nht thit lin quan n s suy ngh v d, phn x chp mt

    n Tuy nhin, s suy ngh nn c xem l thuc vo h thng (nhm) cc hnh ng hp l

    n S hp l cn phi tnh n c phc tp tnh ton q Nu chi ph v ti nguyn tnh ton v thi gian qu cao, th s

    khng c tnh thc t (khng p dng c trong thc t)

    9

  • Tr Tu Nhn To

    Cc tc t hp l (1)

    n Mt tc t (agent) l mt thc th c kh nng nhn thc v hnh ng

    n Mt cch khi qut, mt tc t c th c biu din bng mt hm nh x: t qu trnh (lch s) nhn thc n hnh ng:

    f: P* A

    10

  • Tr Tu Nhn To

    Cc tc t hp l (2)

    n i vi mt tp (lp) cc mi trng v nhim v, chng ta cn tm ra tc t (hoc mt lp cc tc t) c hiu sut tt nht

    n Lu : Cc gii hn v tnh ton (ca my tnh) khng cho php t c s hp l hon ho (ti u) Mc tiu: Thit k chng trnh my tnh ti u i vi cc ti

    nguyn my tnh hin c

    11

  • Tr Tu Nhn To

    Cc nn tng ca TTNT (1) n Trit hc

    q Logic q Cc phng php suy din q Cc c s (nn tng) ca vic hc q Ngn ng q S hp l

    n Ton hc q Biu din hnh thc v cc gii thut chng minh q L thuyt tnh ton q Ti u ha q Xc sut q Thng k

    12

  • Tr Tu Nhn To

    Cc nn tng ca TTNT (2) n Kinh t hc

    q Hm li ch (tin ch) q L thuyt ra quyt nh

    n Khoa hc thn kinh q Nn tng (c s) t nhin ca cc hot ng tr c

    n Tm l hc q S thch nghi q Cc du hiu ca nhn thc v iu khin vn ng q Cc k thut thc nghim (vd: tm sinh l hc,)

    13

  • Tr Tu Nhn To

    Cc nn tng ca TTNT (3) nCng ngh my tnh

    q Xy dng cc my tnh c tc tnh ton nhanh

    nL thuyt iu khin q Thit k cc h thng nhm cc i ha mt hm mc tiu no

    nNgn ng hc q Biu din tri thc q Ng php (ca mt ngn ng)

    14

  • Lch s tm tt ca TTNT (1) n 1943: McCulloch & Pitts trnh by cng trnh nghin cu u tin v

    AI, xut m hnh cc n-ron nhn to 2 trng thi (on/off)

    n 1950: Khi nim v TTNT ln u tin c Turing cp trong bi bo "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"

    n 1956: Workshop u tin (din ra trong 2 thng) Dartmouth (M) bn v lnh vc TTNT, khi nim TTNT c tha nhn

    n 1952-1969: Cc thnh tu ban u trong TTNT

    n 1950s: Cc chng trnh TTNT u tin q Chng trnh chi c ca Samuel q Chng trnh l lun logic ca Newell & Simon q Chng trnh chng minh cc nh l hnh hc ca Gelernter

    Tr Tu Nhn To 15

  • Lch s tm tt ca TTNT (2) n 1965: Robinson c gii thut hon chnh cho vic suy din logic

    n 1966-1973: q Cc nh nghin cu v TTNT nhn ra kh khn v phc tp tnh ton q Gn nh l khng cn cc nghin cu v cc mng n-ron nhn to

    n 1969-1979: S hnh thnh v pht trin ban u ca cc h thng da trn tri thc

    n 1980: TTNT tr thnh mt ngnh cng nghip (cc h thng, chng trnh TTNT dng trong thng mi)

    n 1980-1988: S xut hin bng n ca cc h chuyn gia

    n 1986: Cc mng n-ron nhn to xut hin tr li, tr nn ph bin

    n 1987: TTNT tr thnh mt lnh vc khoa hc

    n 1995: S xut hin ca cc tc t thng minh

    Tr Tu Nhn To 16

  • Vi thnh cng: GoogleBrain (2012)

    17

    17

  • Vi thnh cng: Watson (2011)

    18

    18

  • Vi thnh cng: FIFA prediction (2014)

    19

    19

    http://yourstory.com/2014/07/germany-argentina-fifa-world-cup-2014/

  • A huge breakthrough in AI, 2016

    n AlphaGo of Google has just beaten a top player at Go (c vy), 3/2016 q Go is a 2500 year-old game. q Go is one of the most complex games.

    n AlphaGo learns from 30 millions human moves, and plays itself to find new moves.

    n It beat Lee Sedol (World champion) q http://www.wired.com/2016/03/two-moves-alphago-lee-sedol-

    redefined-future/ q http://www.nature.com/news/google-ai-algorithm-masters-ancient-

    game-of-go-1.19234

    20 Tr tu nhn to

  • Cc thnh tu quan trng khc (1)

    n Lp k hoch v lp lch t ng q NASA thit k c chng trnh lp k hoch t ng (gi l

    Remote Agent) iu khin vic xp lch cc hot ng ca tu v tr

    n Chi c q Deep Blue (h thng my tnh ca IBM) nh bi kin tng

    c vua Th gii Garry Kasparov vo nm 1997

    n iu khin t ng q Mt xe ti nh c iu khin t ng bi h thng ALVINN

    (ca CMU) trong sut 98% ca khong thi gian i t Pittsburgh n San Diego (~2850 miles)

    n Ngi my q Ngy nay, rt nhiu cuc phu thut trong y t s dng cc tr

    gip ngi my trong cc thao tc vi phu (microsurgery)

    Tr Tu Nhn To 21

  • Cc thnh tu quan trng khc (2)

    n Chun on q Cc chng trnh chun on y t da trn phn tch xc sut

    c th thc hin mc tng ng cc bc s chuyn mn trong mt s lnh vc ca y t

    n Lp k hoch hu cn cho qun i q Trong cuc chin tranh Vng Vnh nm 1991, cc lc lng ca

    qun i M trin khai s dng mt chng trnh lp k hoch v xp lch cho cng tc hu cn di chuyn 50.000 xe c, hng ha, v qun lnh

    n Hiu ngn ng v gii quyt vn q Chng trnh my tnh PROVERB c th gii c cc bi ton

    ch (crossword puzzles) tt hn kh nng ca nhiu ngi

    Tr Tu Nhn To 22

  • Cc tranh lun v TTNT (1) n Kh nng ca TTNT?

    q Chi (hp l) mt vn bng bn? q Li xe t ng theo mt ng ni quanh co? q Mua trc tuyn cc hng ha trong 1 tun cho mt hiu tp phm? q Pht hin v chng minh mt l thuyt ton hc mi? q Hi thoi c vi mt ngi trong 1 gi ng h? q Thc hin t ng mt ca phu thut m phc tp? q Dch trc tip (tc thi) gia hai th ting cho mt hi thoi? q

    n My tnh c th suy ngh (nh con ngi) c khng?

    Tr Tu Nhn To 23

  • Cc tranh lun v TTNT (2) n Nu my tnh c th lm thay nhng vic ang c lm bi

    con ngi, th con ngi s cng t vic (tht nghip) n Con ngi s c qu nhiu thi gian rnh ri (so vi qu t,

    nh hin nay) n Con ngi cm thy mt cm gic s thng minh thng tr (cao

    nht) ca h n V my tnh lm thay (v can thip) vo nhiu vic hng ngy

    ca con ngi, h s cm thy cc quyn ring t b xm phm

    n Vic s dng nhiu h thng TTNT c th lm gim (mt i) trch nhim