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  • National Art Education Association

    Electronic Artstrands: Computer Delivery of Art InstructionAuthor(s): Guy HubbardSource: Art Education, Vol. 48, No. 2, Artful Conversations (Mar., 1995), pp. 44-51Published by: National Art Education AssociationStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3193513 .Accessed: 16/06/2014 17:30

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  • ELECTRONIC ARTSTRAN DS: Computer deliveiy~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    A continually recurring task for art educators is preparing, delivering, and revising instruction

    designed to help students achieve art curricular goals. The computer is a natural vehicle for addressing such tasks, although much has yet to be learned about how to use this new medium effectively. What follows is an account of a continuing attempt at organizing an entire course for electronic delivery including the procedures that had to be followed; what the outcome was; what is presently happening; and what may be expected to occur in the future. While developed to make use of resources available at a university, the program is practical for public schools and preparations for it to be field tested in elementary and secondary schools are currently under way.

    GRAPHICS AND INSTRUCTIONAL MANAGEMENT

    Since the early eighties, numbers of predictions have been made about the ways in which electronic technology could impact art education (Ettinger, 1988; Hubbard & Greh, 1991; Hubbard & Linehan, 1983; Jones, 1986; Roland, 1990). From the outset, a distinction was evident between applications that addressed the creation of computer graphics and those where the focus lay on the management of instruction. Computer graphics was often viewed

    by art educators with greater en- thusiasm than computer man- aged instruction in that it pro- vided an additional medium to offer students, and the products were closer to the traditional art production thrust of most school art programs. In con- trast, the use of electronic tech- nology to design and manage the delivery of art instruction has experienced a much slower start However, recent advances in technology have led to in- creased ease in using micro- computers which, together with advances in speed and memory capacity, now place the develop- ment of instructional programs within the grasp of almost any- one with the desire to do so. In fact, electronic hardware and the software it serves is becom- ing "transparent": that is to say, users are increasingly able to concentrate their attention on solving problems that are im- portant to them, rather than, as a prerequisite, having to embroil themselves in learning complex computing procedures.

    Figure 2.

    INSTRUCTIONAL MANAGEMENT WITH MULTIMEDIA

    One means whereby teachers and students may interact powerfully with a

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    Artstrands Main Menu Click A Strand To View: Strand 1 - Uisual Communication - Strand 2 - Fantasy Messages Strand 3 - Art Ideas from History

    Strand 5 - Fabric Rrt Strand 6 - Making Prints Strand 7 - Drawing People Strand 8 - Rrt from Other Cultures Strand 9 - Using Color to Show Distance Strand 10 - Deep Feelings Strand 11 - Drawing Natural Objects Strand 12 - Techniques to Using Paint Strand 13 - Rdding and Subtracting in Rrt Strand 14 - Dominanace in Rrt Strand 15 - Rrt and Geometry Strand 16 - Rppreciating Sculpture Strand 17 - Recent Rrt History g

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    Figure 1.

    Strand 28 - Symbolism In Art

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    | Lesson42 V^ Lesson20 L n87 Lessn49 | design repetition niitt iwecn art nimal syjtbols the persuders

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    computer in an instructional setting is through programs usually named "hypermedia" or "multimedia" (Hubbard, 1989; Slawson, 1993). All popular brands of computers have programs of this kind available to them

    ART EDUCATION / MARCH 1995

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  • BY GUY HUBBARD

    of art instruction e and death 48

    Introduction: Old age and death are constantl y recurri ng themes in art.

    Fear, associated with death and dyi ng shows itself i n art across the ages and it is equally present in art works today.

    When men and women are young and healthy, they usually live for the excitement of the moment and rarely give much thought to a time when they will be old, perhaps sick, and have to face thei r own deaths. But growi ng old happens to

    everyone; sooner or later everyone dies. If the subject of old age and death is one that motivates you to express your feeli ngs, this lesson offers you an opportunity to do so.

    "Study of the head of n old ma", Albrc-ht Durer Grrnan, 16th. century.

    Figure 3.

    48 old age and death I ntrctioes: Le arai g Outcemes:

    I. Find a poem or an essay that presents old age or death in 1. Decri be how the content in your art work relates to a

    a way that corresponds with your personal feelings. If you poem or statement about old age and death.

    prefer, you may alternatively write a statement of your 2. Explain why you selected the medium or media as

    own that sums up your feelings about death or dying rather appropriate for your idea.

    than going to some other source. 3. Make an art product inspired by a poem or statement 2. Use the written statement as your inspiration for a bout old age and death.

    visual statement on the same theme. The work may include

    parts that are realistic or imaginative. Above all gou Suwested Materials:

    should express gour deepest feelings on this most profound Your own choice

    topic. You may use any medium you find appropriate to

    express your feelings about this theme. 3. Submit for evaluation an art work, in your choice of i

    medium, on the topic of old age and death and a poem or

    statement about this topic.

    3;P1 A

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    so it was a natural candidate for translation into contemporary electronic media.

    What follows is a report about the development of a multimedia art program. It is an effort in flux, because the author is continually adding to it as his understanding grows. As such, the process described below is best thought of as one step along a path, with others yet to come.

    ELECTRONIC ARTSTRANDS For twenty years, a general elective

    art course has been offered to

    48

    I treduction: Old age and death are constantly recurring themes in art

    Fear, associated with death and dying shows itself in art across the sges and it is equally present in art works today.

    When men and women are young and healthy, they usually live for the excitement of the moment and rarely give much

    thought to a time when they will be old, perhaps sick, and have to face their own deaths. But growing old happens to

    everyone; sooner or later everyone dies. If the subject of old age and death is one that motivates you to express your feelings, this lesson offers you an opportunity to do so.

    Figure 5. i File Edit Ie Techniques Help A

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    Figure 6.

    undergraduates on the Bloomington campus of Indiana University. The premise underlying this course is that students from a wide range of academic backgrounds can benefit when permitted to choose the art they would like to study from a wide range of topics, rather than be told what to do. Consequently, a flexible structure is provided to give guidance, while counseling is performed by expert peers rather than conventional

    instructors (Hubbard & e and death Kula, 1975). The

    opportunity gives art education majors practice in teaching mature students; while those who enroll enjoy the luxury of individual instruction. A textbook

    ail), Albreht Durr was prepared and went through numerous revisions prior to being published commercially

    3 6: f9 (Hubbard & Zimmerman, 1982). It consists of a random collection of 100 lessons illustrated with black and w