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ARM MICROCONTROLLER1. INTRODUCTIONFEATURES ARM7TDMI-S processor. 128 kilobyte on-chip Flash Program Memory with In-System Programming (ISP) and In-Application Programming (IAP) capability. Flash programming time is 1 ms for up to a 512 byte line. 10,000 erase and write cycles are guaranteed per 512byte line. Single sector erase (8 kB) or the whole chip erase is done in 400 ms. 64/32/16 kilobyte Static RAM (LPC2106/2105/2104). Vectored Interrupt Controller. Emulation Trace Module supports real-time trace. RealMonitor module enables real time debugging. Standard ARM Test/Debug interface for compatibility with existing tools. Very small package LQFP48 (7x7mm2). Two UARTs, one with full modem interface. I2C serial interface. SPI serial interface. Two timers, each with 4 capture/compare channels. PWM unit with up to 6 PWM outputs. Real Time Clock. Watchdog Timer. General purpose I/O pins. CPU operating range up to 60 MHz. Dual power supply.- CPU operating voltage range of 1.65V to 1.95V (1.8V +/- 8.3%).- I/O power supply range of 3.0V to 3.6V (3.3V +/- 10%). Two low power modes, Idle and Power Down. Processor wakeup from Power Down mode via external interrupt. Individual enable/disable of peripheral functions for power optimization. On-chip crystal oscillator with an operating range of 10 MHz to 25 MHz. On-chip PLL allows CPU operation up to the maximum CPU rate. May be used over the entire crystal operating range.APPLICATIONS Internet gateway. Serial communications protocol converter. Access control. Industrial Control. Medical equipment.

ARCHITECTURAL OVERVIEWThe LPC2106/2105/2104 consists of an ARM7TDMI-S CPU with emulation support, the ARM7 Local Bus for interface to on-chip memory controllers, the AMBA Advanced High-performance Bus (AHB) for interface to the interrupt controller, and the VLSI Peripheral Bus (VPB, a compatible superset of ARMs AMBA Advanced Peripheral Bus) for connection to on-chip peripheral functions. The LPC2106/2105/2104 configures the ARM7TDMI-S processor in little-endian byte order.

AHB peripherals are allocated a 2 megabyte range of addresses at the very top of the 4 gigabyte ARM memory space. Each AHB peripheral is allocated a 16 kilobyte address space within the AHB address space. LPC2106/05/04 peripheral functions (other than the interrupt controller) are connected to the VPB bus. The AHB to VPB bridge interfaces the VPB bus to the AHB bus. VPB peripherals are also allocated a 2 megabyte range of addresses, beginning at the 3.5 gigabyte address point. Each VPB peripheral is allocated a 16 kilobyte address space within the VPB address space.

The connection of on-chip peripherals to device pins is controlled by a Pin Connection Block. This must be configured by software to fit specific application requirements for the use of peripheral functions and pins.

ARM7TDMI-S PROCESSORThe ARM7TDMI-S is a general purpose 32-bit microprocessor, which offers high performance and very low power consumption. The ARM architecture is based on Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) principles, and the instruction set and related decode mechanism are much simpler than those of microprogrammed Complex Instruction Set Computers. This simplicity results in a high instruction throughput and impressive real-time interrupt response from a small and cost-effective processor core.

Pipeline techniques are employed so that all parts of the processing and memory systems can operate continuously. Typically, while one instruction is being executed, its successor is being decoded, and a third instruction is being fetched from memory.

The ARM7TDMI-S processor also employs a unique architectural strategy known as THUMB, which makes it ideally suited to high-volume applications with memory restrictions, or applications where code density is an issue.The key idea behind THUMB is that of a super-reduced instruction set. Essentially, the ARM7TDMI-S processor has two instruction sets: The standard 32-bit ARM instruction set. A 16-bit THUMB instruction set.The THUMB sets 16-bit instruction length allows it to approach twice the density of standard ARM code while retaining most of the ARMs performance advantage over a traditional 16-bit processor using 16-bit registers. This is possible because THUMB code operates on the same 32-bit register set as ARM code.

THUMB code is able to provide up to 65% of the code size of ARM, and 160% of the performance of an equivalent ARM processor connected to a 16-bit memory system. The ARM7TDMI-S processor is described in detail in the ARM7TDMI-S Datasheet that can be found on official ARM website.

ON-CHIP FLASH MEMORY SYSTEMThe LPC2106/2105/2104 incorporates a 128K byte Flash memory system. This memory may be used for both code and data storage. Programming of the Flash memory may be accomplished in several ways: over the serial built-in JTAG interface, using In System Programming (ISP) and UART0, or by means of In Application Programming (IAP) capabilities. The application program, using the In Application Programming (IAP) functions, may also erase and/or program the Flash while the application is running, allowing a great degree of flexibility for data storage field firmware upgrades, etc.

ON-CHIP STATIC RAMThe LPC2106, LPC2105 and LPC2104 provide a 64K byte, 32K byte and 16K byte static RAM memory respectively that may be used for code and/or data storage. The SRAM supports 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit accesses.

The SRAM controller incorporates a write-back buffer in order to prevent CPU stalls during back-to-back writes. The write-back buffer always holds the last data sent by software to the SRAM. This data is only written to the SRAM when another write is requested by software. If a chip reset occurs, actual SRAM contents will not reflect the most recent write request. Any software that checks SRAM contents after reset must take this into account. A dummy write to an unused location may be appended to any operation in order to guarantee that all data has really been written into the SRAM.

BLOCK DIAGRAM

Figure 1: LPC2106/2105/2104 Block Diagram

LPC2106/2105/2104 REGISTERSAccesses to registers in LPC2106/2105/2104 is restricted in the following ways:1) user must NOT attempt to access any register locations not defined.2) Access to any defined register locations must be strictly for the functions for the registers.3) Register bits labeled -, 0 or 1 can ONLY be written and read as follows:- - MUST be written with 0, but can return any value when read (even if it was written with 0). It is a reserved bit and maybe used in future derivatives.- 0 MUST be written with 0, and will return a 0 when read.- 1 MUST be written with 1, and will return a 1 when read.

The following table shows all registers available in LPC2106/2105/2104 microcontroller sorted according to the address.

Access to the specific one can be categorized as either read/write, read only or write only (R/W, RO and WO respectively).

"Reset Value" field refers to the data stored in used/accessible bits only. It does not include reserved bits content. Some registers may contain undetermined data upon reset. In this case, reset value is categorized as "undefined". Classification as "NA" is used in case reset value is not applicable. Some registers in RTC are not affected by the chip reset. Their reset value is marked as * and these registers must be initialized by software if the RTC is enabled.

Registers in LPC2106/2105/2104 are 8, 16 or 32 bits wide. For 8 bit registers shown in Table 1, bit residing in the MSB (The Most Significant Bit) column corresponds to the bit 7 of that register, while bit in the LSB (The Least Significant Bit) column corresponds to the bit 0 of the same register. If a register is 16/32 bit wide, the bit residing in the top left corner of its description, is the bit corresponding to the bit 15/31 of the register, while the bit in the bottom right corner corresponds to bit 0 of this register.

Examples: bit "ENA6" in PWMPCR register (address 0xE001404C) represents the bit at position 14 in this register; bits 15, 8, 7 and 0 in the same register are reserved. Bit "Stop on MR6" in PWMMCR register (0xE0014014) corresponds to the bit at position 20; bits 31 to 21 of the same register are reserved.Unused (reserved) bits are marked with "-" and represented as gray fields. Access to them is restricted as already described.

Table 1: LPC2106/2105/2104 Registers

Address Offset Name Description MSB LSB Access Reset Value

WD

0xE0000000 WD MOD Watchdog mode register ----WD INT WD TOF WDRE SET WDEN R/W 0

Watchdog

0xE0000004 WDTC timer constant 32 bit data R/W 0xFF

register

0xE0000008 WD FEED Watchdog feed sequence register 8 bit data (0xAA fallowed by 0x55) WO NA

Table 1: LPC2106/2105/2104 Registers

Table 1: LPC2106/2105/2104 Registers

Table 1: LPC2106/2105/2104 Registers

Table 1: LPC2106/2105/2104 Registers

2. LPC2106/2105/2104 MEMORY ADDRESSINGMEMORY MAPSThe LPC2106/2105/2104 incorporates several distinct memory regions, shown in the following figures. Figure 2 shows the overallmap of the entire address space from the user program viewpoint following reset. The interrupt vector area supports address remapping,which is described later in this section.

Figure 2: System Memory Map

Figure 3: Peripheral Memory Map

Figure 4: AHB Peripheral Map

Figure 5: VPB Peripheral MapLPC2106/2105/2104 MEMORY RE-MAPPING AND BOOT BLOCKMemory Map Concepts and Operating ModesThe basic concept on the LPC2106/2105/2104 is that each memory area has a "natural" location in the memory map. This is theaddress range for which code residing in that area is written. The bulk of each memory space remains permanently fixed in thesame location, eliminating the need to h

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