architecture history - industrial revolution

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2. The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 19thCENTURYART & ARCHITECTURE 1900 1800 1700 2000 2100 Time line The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 2008 3. INTRODUCTION The swift development of architectural technique and form in this century has roots that go as far back as the 18th century. HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE The Enlightenment: Enhanced the significance and the social status of every citizen. Fundamental change in political culture. 19th Century: An era of revolutionary changes affecting every aspects of life. The Industrial Revolution: spreads from England to Europe and North America, created a new type of worker : the wage-laborer or proletarian, who earn hard living in the numerous factories. 4. NEW INVENTIONS The Steam Engine: invented by James Watt in 1785, whose proliferation into newly built machine shop and iron foundries engendered an appropriate type of building. HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Amos Beam Engine 1867 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 5. The Railway :A meaningful symbol of the new age which in turn had consequences for architecture - stations, bridges, tunnels. NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Locomotive : 1813, Christopher Blackett The Rocket : 1829, George & Robert Stephenson The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 6. NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 The Steam Boat: An important means of transportation which in turn had consequences for mass migration from across the globe. Mississippi Steam boat in 1906 inspired by Robert Fultons Clermont : 1807 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 7. MASS MIGRATION HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 The possibility of travel brought about the migration of population from the countryside to big cities and from nation to nation. Streets of New York City - Mid 1800 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 8. OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Rover Bicycle: 1888, John Kemp Starley Daimler motorcycle : 1885, Gottlieb Daimler The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 9. OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Motorwagen : 1888, Carl Benz Mercedes Jellinek Quadricycle : 1896, Henry Ford The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 10. OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Thomas Alva Edison Alexander Graham Bell Bell demonstration of the telephone : 1876 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 11. OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Spinning Jenny Steam power cotton weaving machine : 1850s The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 12. OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Steam engine power supply : 1876, George Corliss for Machinery Hall - Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition Wallpaper printing machine Kodak Pocket Camera : 1895, George Eastman The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 13. OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 First Singer sewing machine : 1851 Singer sewing machine : 1870 First Remington Typewriter : 1874 Remington Typewriter No 10: 1907 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 14. OTHER NEW INVENTIONS HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Toilet Bowl catalog : 1898 Consumer Guide, 1897 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 15. WORLD EXPOSITION HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Great exhibitions, since their birth in Londons Hyde Park in 1851, have served repeatedly astesting grounds for new architectural ideas. Joseph PaxtonsCrystal Palacesoon became the model for other experiment in iron and glass. The Crystal Palace was designed by Joseph Paxton for the Great Exhibition of 1851, held in Hyde Park, London. It was afterwards re-erected on Sydenham Hill, where it stood until accidentally destroyed by fire in 1936. The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 16. WORLD EXPOSITION -Crystal Palace HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Its iron frame was prefabricated in sections and its glass panels, set into wooden sash-bar, were ofstandard 4 feet lengths. In 1851, it was the largest building ever constructed, with an area of 770,000 sq.ft. The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE Opening Ceremony by Queen Victoria 17. WORLD EXPOSITION -Crystal Palace HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Facade Floor Plan The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 18. WORLD EXPOSITION -Crystal Palace HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Main Nave The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE Transcept Transcept with fountain 19. WORLD EXPOSITION -Crystal Palace HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Centhall The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE Foreign Exhibit Closing Ceremony 20. Centennial Exhibition 1876, Philadelphia, United States WORLD EXPOSITION -Centennial Exhibition 1876HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE 21. WORLD EXPOSITION -Paris World Exhibition 1889HISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 Paris World Exhibition 1889 The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE Paris World Exhibition 1889 : Machine Hall, Charles Dutert (architect) & Victor Contamin (engineer). Eiffel Tower, Paris: Gustave Eiffel 22. IRON STEEL GLASS & CONCRETEHISTORY of ART & ARCHITECTURE06 New materials were increasingly used.Cast Iron , an essentially brittle material, is approximately four times as resistant to compression as stone. Wrought Iron , which is forty times as resistant to tension and bending as stone, is only four times heavier. It can be form and molded into any shape. Structures consisting of metal columns and girders no longer needed walls for their statics . This marked the onset of the most significant technological revolution in architectural history. Glasscan be manufacture in larger sizes and volumes. The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE Solid structures could be replaced by skeleton structures, making itpossible to erect buildings of almost unrestricted height and width very quickly, using prefabricated elements . Francois Hennebiquedeveloped thereinforced concreteconstruction, particularly in overcoming the weakness which existed in previous reinforced concrete structures. 23. In terms of social structure, the Industrial Revolution witnessed the triumph of amiddle classof industrialists and businessmen over a landed class of nobility and gentry. Ordinary working people found increased opportunities for employment in the new mills and factories, but these were often under strict working conditions with long hours of labour dominated by a pace set by machines.However, harsh working conditions were prevalent long before the Industrial Revolution took place. Pre-industrial society was very static and often cruel -child labour ,dirty living conditionsand long working hours were just as prevalent before the Industrial Revolution SOCIAL EFFECTS 24. SOCIAL EFFECTS Women taking a break in between long working hours City environment and living condition very bad 25. SOCIAL EFFECTS The Industrial Revolution concentrated labour into mills, factories and mines, thus facilitating the organisation ofcombinationsortrade unionsto help advance the interests of working people.The power of a union could demand better terms by withdrawing all labour and causing a consequent cessation of production. Employers had to decide between giving in to the union demands at a cost to themselves or suffer the cost of the lost production. The main method the unions used to effect change wasstrike action . Many strikes were painful events for both sides, the unions and the management. In England, the Combination Act forbade workers to form any kind of trade union from 1799 until its repeal in 1824. Even after this, unions were still severely restricted.Eventually effective political organisation for working people was achieved through the trades unions who, after the extensions of the franchise in 1867 and 1885, began to support socialist political parties that later merged to became the BritishLabour Party.Strike action 26. Q & A SESSION Thank you The INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION- 19thCENTURYARCHITECTURE