Architectural Images in Buddhist Scriptures, Buddhism Truth and Oriental Spirit World
Post on 02-Apr-2016
DESCRIPTIONhttp://www.seipub.org/ijps/paperInfo.aspx?ID=4259 Architectural humanist Rykwert regarded that building is representation of heaven planning, but no buildings were in the Garden of Eden in the Bible, whereas architectural images were numerous and spectacular in Buddhism and Taoism spiritual world, which was associated with the truth of Oriental religions. The rich architectural and landscape images of spiritual kingdom were reflected in the art of Buddhism and Taoism, which representing the corresponding religious belief and transcendental realm of beyond this world.
ArchitecturalImagesinBuddhistScriptures, BuddhismTruthandOrientalSpiritWorldYifengWenSchoolofArchitectureandUrbanPlanning,GuangzhouUniversity Guangzhou,510006,Chinawenyifeng1968@sina.comAbstract Architectural humanist Rykwert regarded that building isrepresentationofheavenplanning,butnobuildingswereinthe Garden of Eden in the Bible, whereas architecturalimages were numerous and spectacular in Buddhism andTaoismspiritualworld,whichwasassociatedwiththetruthof Oriental religions. The rich architectural and landscapeimages of spiritual kingdom were reflected in the art ofBuddhism and Taoism, which representing thecorresponding religious belief and transcendental realm ofbeyondthisworld.KeyWordsBuddhist Truth; Spirit World; Architectural Image; SpiritualPhenomenology
ArchitecturalhumanistRykwert regarded thatAdamconstruct building, as named all living beings,primarily is action imitatingGods creation.Buildingconstructed by Adam was not for the sake ofwithstanding weather, but wrote a book by themetaphorofhisownbody,isrepresentationofheavenplanning, amongwhich himself is the core.Rykwertput forward a disputable topic about the Garden ofEdenwherewestillneededbuilding.But,infact,thereis no clear description of the paradise architecturesimagesintheBibleforAdamimitatingastheChristianheaven,becausetheChristianheavenismainlyakindofmoralmetaphor,whichultimately leadswesternertodoabstracttheoryresearchabouttheuniverse.TheKoranalsohad lessdescriptionabout thekingdomofheaven,and itonlymentioned that theheaven is theparadise near rivers; it partly because that the Islamoriginated andmainly prevalent indesert areas, andalso because the Islam is against idolatry, forming akindof calmness,melancholyand introspective spiritwhich is difficult to form rich imagery kingdom ofheaven. Whereas in the Buddhism and Orientalspiritual world, the heaven images were numerous
andspectacular,anditisnotonlyasimplegardenlikethe Eden, but full of building images, which wasassociatedwiththetruthofOrientalreligions. TheTruthofBuddhismandSpiritualPhenomenologyOntology is discussion about what is true existence.Buddhasaidthatallsecularpeoplehaveupsidedowndelusion,andonlyenlightenedBuddhacanliveinrealkingdomand see innermindbeing.Buddhabelievedthat secular people cling to the reality of externalworld,butnotrealizethathumanashumankindisjusta kind of experience way. The authenticity of theexternalmaterialworldis justtheresultofthemindsprojectcausedbyKarmawhichmakessecularpeoplefallingintoSamsarainlifeanddeathandnothavingarest.DiamondSutrasaid:all secular realityandaimare illusory. InBuddhism,onlymetaphysical emptyof nirvana can detach from the outside world andshowincredibletranscendentalforce.TheAvatamsakaSutrasaid:allthebuddhasinonethoughtcanclearlyshow boundless world. The transcendental force ofnirvanacanfreecastallkindsofspiritualworld. WhenEinstein said: theremustbeanexternalnatureworld that is thepremiseofphysics.This sayingnotonly tells us the true meaning of basic concepts ofphysics in fact being a greatmystery, alsomakes usbacktoWillardVanOrmanQuinesquestionabouttheontology of science concepts. Whether physicsconceptsare convenient conceptual tools in the senseof pragmatism philosophy, or some kinds ofontologicalstatements.Quinnsaid:physicalobjectsarenot directly given things in experience, but asconvenient intermediary objects was introduced,is a kind of contracted setting things in order tosimplify theory. In epistemology physical objects aresimilarwiththegodsofHomerepic,allofthembeingmyth and fiction,but it just as a structurewitheasy treatment of flow experience proved moreeffective than other myths. Then, the ontology of
sciencecanrefertowhatmeaning?Between paradigm of phenomenology andphysics, Quinn confirmed his phenomenologicaltendency.Hesaid:inavarietyofconceptstructureithas thatonenamelycalledphenomenology requiringepistemologicalpriority.Asphenomenonistheobjectof direct experience and directly existence, and notbeing set up or introduced and more fundamental.While Quinn went further according tophenomenology approach no more but into anotherdeadend.In1953 inOnPsychologicalThingheflatlydeclared thattheconceptofpure feelingmaterials isanextremelyemptyabstractandconfirmedthattheparadigmofnominalism isextremelydifficult.Thisdifficult show in his disagree with Carnap who inLogic Structure of World try to reduced allstatementsaboutworldtothatofdirectexperience,i.e.from the basic conceptual relations of originalexperience to define all other concepts, so puttingwhole world into rational reconstruction. In OnWhat Things Exist Quinn said: to translate allstatements about physical objects through no matterhow complex and circuitous way into language ofphenomenologyisstillactuallyimpossible.If this difficult should be resolved in scientificphilosophy itself, it involvesa critiqueof the conceptof objectivity. Even only from the view of toolrational,howthephysicalconceptsandtheirobjectivecanbeunderstood,yetmustberesortedtoapriorism,i.e.priorideasgivenbyGod, thatisthebasicspiritofWestern religion. Whereas in Oriental religions,especiallyinBuddhism,theobjectivitybethoughtasbeing constructed.For example, inBuddhismsview,everybody see it is raining, but there is not a rainontological being, and rain is just produced bysimilar karma of the most people. The wordsimilarisimportantandmustbepaidattention.Itisjust similar, and there is no objective thing withabsoluteidentityforeveryone.Buddhismbelievesthatwhenweseethematerialworldastheultimatereality,wemake amistake, as samemistake as indreamingsomeone who think that he saw his head beingchopped off; if someone understands what he isactually in the dream when he is awake, the man
began towake up in greatwisdom. In this spiritualstate, the heart is not checked by material, but cantransformmaterialphenomena.Accordingtothistruth,we began to read the ultimate meaning of spiritualkingdom images of Buddhism and the sacred landprojectedbyheartinreligiouspaintingsorarts.The description of Sukhavati (Pure Land) inAmitayurdhyanaSutra isthat: towatchthisBuddha,you must image on soil with seven jewels whereonlotus blossom with beautiful color and eightyfourthousandveins, as same asheavenpicture; theveinshad eightyfour thousand lights, all be seen clearly.EveryleafdecoratedbybillionsofManibeadcoveringeverywhere, and every Mani beads put forwardthousands of bright light as canopy decorated withseven jewels.... in theplatform,naturallyhadDhvajawithfourpillarasbillionsofSumeruMountain,allthislikeSuyamaPalacewithpreciouscurtain.Theimagesshowed in Dunhuang murals reflected the variousBuddhismsacredlandofheavenlikethis,asshowninFig.1. The Avatamsaka Sutra said: while light gothrough millions of world, over eastern billions ofworld,assameassouthern,westernandnorthern,aswell as fourdimensionsup anddown, everyworldshad billions Jambu Dvipa as well as billions ofAkanis!t!ha,allcontentsofthemareclearlyshowing.That takes a more abstract, metaphysical way fordescription. Compared to the Husserlsphenomenologywhichhadtoomanyproblemstodealwith, the above Buddhist scriptures is a kind ofabsolutespiritualphenomenology.
TheIdealofTaoismandRelatedArtImagesComparedwithBuddhism,Taoismheavenworldpaymore attention to beautiful scenes in this world for
imitation, suchas the fairylandwith threemountainsintheEastChinaSeathat likeadreamlandofmirageandaphantasmofremote islandswhichbecomeanarchetype forclassicalChinesegarden.Taoisms idealis becoming an immortal being able to harness thegenuineenergyandflyfreelyinvariouswonderlands.Xiao Yao as keyword in Zhuangzi, which meanstranscendental easy and free, is particularphilosophicallanguageofZhuangzi,torefertoakindof spiritual transcendental freedom beyond here andnow. Forget time and detach everything isregardedasrealapproachfromvulgaritytofairyland.IndevelopmentofTaoism, inadditionto imagineoutabstractspiritualworlds including thehighestThreePuresrealm, themorecolorful fairyworldsreflectedinpoetries,paintingsandlegendarystories.Especiallyscholarslandscapepaintingsclearlyreflectthisfeelingofpassionforbeautifulscenery.InMingdynastymythnovelJourneytotheWestgaveverycleardepictionabout fairyland worlds: mist and clouds in thetwilight, the moon and sun showing move, there isthousands of old cypress and bamboo grove......,outside flowers like brocades, precious grasses arefragrant beside bridges, green embellish aroundabrupt cliffs, suspended rock with moss growing,frequentlyhearing the cryof cranes,often seeing thefly of phoenixes....., black apes and white deer arehidden and appearing sometimes, golden lions andjadelikeelephantsbeingfreelyactionandrest,lookingthoroughly at Elysian Fields, it is just a wonderfulheaven. This was the scenery firstly looked byMonkey King just arriving at Lingtai Mountain andSanxing Cavity, then he went to the Heaven Palaceand saw that: before the building for pilgrimage,crimson gauze clothing like the stars shining, lotuscrown issplendidandmagnificent,all immortalwithjade hairpin, beaded shoe, purple ribbon and goldaward......, theHeavenPalacehad jadegatewithgoldnail and surrounded by winding corridors, whereincolorful phoenixes and dragons flying, everywherewere exquisitely carved. Lingtai Mountain andSanxing Cavity is a metaphor for heart in Chinesecharacter;thefairylandisjusttheproduceofTaoismsheart with transcendental spiritual freedom. This
ideal is also, of course, the theme ofChinese scholarpaintingswant to show, as seen in Fig. 2,while theYonglePalacesmuraldirectly gives thedepiction ofvariousfairylands.
Yongle Palaces mural which located at ShanxiProvinceinChinaisaflowerofChineseancientmuralpaintings; its artistic value is comparable to that ofDunhuang frescoes. It is not only an importantmasterpieceinChinesepaintings,alsoisrareprojectinthe world painting history. The whole mural has atotal of 1000 squaremeters, respectively drawing onthewallofseveralbuildingsofthetemple,asshowninFig.35.Among them, theThreePureshall isamainbuildingwhichhadamuralcalledpilgrimage to theOriginGod,asshowninFig.3.Thepicturebeing4.26meters high, 94.68 meters length, a total of 403.34squaremeters,depictsTaoistOrdinationRankswhichwascompletedindueforminearlyTangdynasty.
In the sectorwall ofChunyang hall there is amuralcalled Zhonglihan enlighten Ludongbin whichdepicts Ludongbin and Zhonglihan sitting on amountain rock; the background is a vigorous pine,flowingspringsaround.Zhonglihanwhosit front thepine, a twinkle in his eyes,with a kind and friendlysmileonhisfacewearinghempenshoeswithbarefoot,topless and easy posture, just watch Ludongbin.Ludongbin sitand listenwithhumblydemeanor; thedetails of his hands catching sleeve, the left handgentlytwistingtherightsleeve,haveexposedtheinnercontradictionofuncertaintyaboutwhatheisgoingtodo, as shown in Fig.5. The story depicted by thepainting speciously reflects theworldviewand idealTaoism. The hero Ludongbin was born at YongLetown in Ruicheng city in Tang dynasty (799 AD).Ludongbins familybackgroundwasofficial,atyouthhe was keen on imperial examinations and officialrank, but until 64 years old he just acquired asuccessful candidate in the highest imperialexaminations. In legend, Ludongbin was pleased totravel, and encounter theTaoismmasterZhonglihan;by Zhonglihans enlightenment he hence gave uphuman wealth, learning and practicing immortality,andhe successively traveled toLushanMountains in
Jiangxi,ZhongtiaoMountains inShanxiandsoonforsecret cultivating Taoismand no one knowing hiseventualsituation.
Therearetwokindsofexistenceforman,namely,thebeing of reality and transcendent; in other words,humanexistinthetworealms:thisworldandbeyondworld,andlight is the interfaceof the twoworlds.The material world is that one under light, whilebeyond light is thatof transcendent.Aristotledividedtwo worlds as introlunar and ultralunar by moon,but the light is a true thing that can separate twoworlds. Einstein said it is impossible to travel fasterthan light, only because the light makes everythinghard for practical experience. In this sense, it is notimpossible to travel faster than light,butoncewegobeyondthespeedoflight,whichmeansthatweenterarealmwith infinitedimension for spirit.The truth ofBuddhismand idealofTaoism is toenlightenhumantogiveupand fromclinging to theexternalworldofordinary experience, turning to pursuit the innertranscendentalexistence.Thetranscendentalemptyofnirvana is inconceivable infinite, even the Buddharefusedtomakeanyconcreteanswerforwhataboutit.Why the Buddha said human have an upsidedownillusion, also because the transcendental nirvana aswell as its corresponding truth which is vastlydifferentwithsocalledeverydaycommonknowledge.
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