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  • Aquatic Nuisance Species in Ballast Water: Regional Issues & ActivitiesPresented by:Marilyn Leland, Deputy DirectorLisa Kaaihue, Project ManagerCitizens promoting environmentally safe operation of the Alyeska terminal and associated tankers.

  • What is PWSRCAC? Independent non-profit organization formed in 1989 after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.A local voice for communities and citizens on oil industry decisions that affect them.Organization is guided by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) and our contract with Alyeska.

  • Accomplishments

    Disabled Tanker Towing StudyPWS Tanker Risk AssessmentDouble-Hulled TankersEscort TugsIce Detection RadarVapor Control

  • Working RelationshipsToday, the oil industry and regulators consult PWSRCAC and vice versa on oil transportation and related environmental issues.

  • From:

  • European Green Crab

  • Smithsonian research with PWSRCAC: Analysis of Coastal InvasionsNationwide Analysis of Coastal Invasions

    Literature-Based Synthesis and Online Database of All Reported NIS

    Field-Based Surveys to Provide Standardized Measures and Baseline to Track: (a) New Invasions Over Time (b) Patterns of Spread

    Used to Guide and Evaluate Management strategiesSampling in tanker ballast water

  • Conducting the Surveys: Methods20 PVC panels and 2 wood blocks were deployed at 10 different blocks per embaymentPanels are constructed of PVC plastic and wood to attract species that settle on hard surfaces and those that bore into wooden structures.October 2004-KJL

  • Conducting the Survey: MethodsThey were then retrieved after an approximate soak time of 3 months in the waterPanels were placed 1m below mean low water and attached to fixed structures already within the embayment

  • Processing the data

    Individual organisms of each different morphotype were identified, collected, and preserved. These specimens were then identified to species by SERC personnel and by outside taxonomists

    October 2004-KJL

  • Field ResultsFrom 2000 Final Project Report24 non-indigenous species have been introduced in Alaska15 species recorded in Prince William Sound13 species in Kachemak Bay and Cook Inlet

  • Other Research ActivitiesBallast Water Exchange ExperimentsGreen Crab Laboratory StudiesPotential research: hull fouling

  • Future Project DirectionsLess emphasis on supporting baseline researchMore emphasis on:Ballast water treatment technologiesGreen crab monitoringLegislative issues

  • CoordinationMember: Western Regional Panel of the Aquatic Nuisance Species Task ForceHold seat on the Invasive Species Advisory Committee ISAC advisory to the National Invasive Species CouncilHost: Non-Indigenous Species Working Group in Alaska2001 Zebra Mussel Distribution

  • Invasive Species: For more informationPWSRCAC: www.pwsrcac.orgSmithsonian Environmental Research Center: Regional Panel: answest.fws.govState of Alaska Aquatic Nuisance Species Management www.invasivespecies.govGlobal Ballast Water Management

    MARILYN to begin here.The NIS Project has been a priority for PWSRCAC for several years:Ballast Water Concern*Ballast water is one of the most common modes of transportation for aquatic nuisance species*Millions of tons of ballast water is carried to Port Valdez in oil tankers*Third largest volume of ballast water of any US Port less than half is dirty and is treated at the BWTF; more than half is dumped into Port Valdez*Tankers regularly arrive from ports already invaded by aquatic nuisance speciesEmphasize no regulatory protections for us in Alaska!LISA begin here.

    *So, why are we so concerned about ballast water invasions.many reasons including pathogens, viruses, and invasive plants & animals such as the European Green Crab.Since 1998, we have cosponsored NIS research primarily with the USF&W Service. Other sponsors have included: National Sea Grant, SeaRiver, ARCO, BP, American Petroleum Instituteand Alyeska Pipeline Company.

    The research has included an extensive literature review, field surveys, ballast water exchange experiments, and laboratory studies.

    Since 1996, about a half a million dollars for this research has been funded through a USF&WS grant. Because of the grant funding, the researchers are able to economically work on our issues as well as expand out to other parts of Alaska, in order to learn more about NIS issues on a broader bases. Context

    Throw this slide up to show extent of the SERC research effort they have created a national network for monitoring.[explain the sites]our funds have gone specifically for research related to Prince William Sound, including work in the field, in the laboratory and on the tankers.

    Surveys were completed within 22 embayments on the East, West, and Gulf coasts of the USPacific coast sites- Dutch Harbor, AK (DH), Kodiak Bay, AK (KD), Kachemak Bay, AK (AK), Prince William Sound, AK (PW), Sitka, AK, (ST) Ketchikan, AK (KT), Puget Sound, WA (WA), Coos Bay, OR (OR), Humboldt Bay, CA (HB), San Francisco Bay, CA (SF), San Pedro Bay, CA (LB) and San Diego Bay (SD)Atlantic coast sites- Great Bay, NH (NH), Narragansett Bay, RI (RI), Chesapeake Bay, VA (CB), Charleston Harbor (CH), St. Johns River, FL (JX), and Biscayne Bay, FL (BB)Gulf coast sites- Tampa Bay, FL (TB), Pensacola Bay, FL (PB), Galveston Bay, TX (GB), and Corpus Christi Bay, TX (CC)

    Bays are chosen by many different factors, the 2 most important of these being shipping patterns and salinity. We try to choose bays that have at least one major port and a salinity between 25-35ppt. Depth within the bay and across sites is highly variable. Each bay is separated into 10 sites in which 20 PVC plates and 2 wood blocks are placed out at each one of these sites for a total of 200 PVC plates and 20 wood blocks per bay. The PVC plates are 5inx5in, slightly sanded on one side so that organisms will attach and zip tied to a brick. The brick is a regular common place fireplace brick and is used only for weight. All plates are hung 1m below mean low water from fixed structures (docks) so they will always be submerged. Sites include ports, marinas, naval bases, bridges, breakwaters, etc. We try to vary the sites and spread out them out throughout the entire bay to get characteristic samples of the entire area. After retrieval, the plates are analyzed in the lab. A certain subset of these plates are analyzed while the organisms are still alive as it is much easier to identify live specimens. Each different morphotype is identified, vouchered in individual vials, and preserved to be identified to genus/species later on by our taxonomists. For some of the taxa, collaborators have requested that we take additional samples for DNA analysis. For the most part, we are interested in sessile species, although after each plate is finished, we wash down the plate to collect the mobile biota that was associated with it. Examples of sessile organisms that frequently attach and grow on our plates are Tunicates, Bryozoans, Hydroids, Calcareous worms (Serpulids and Spirorbids), Barnacles, Bivalves (including clams, mussels, and oysters), etc.About 13 of the 15 species found in Prince William Sound can be attributed to ballast water.

    Photos: suspisous as an invasive because it was not recorded in the Homer area prior to this work; it is known as a ballast water invasive. Known invasives in your region include the soft-shell clam.

    Mention that although some species are nonindigenous, it does not necessarily mean they are a nuisance. We are more worried about the potential invasion of the Green crab and the Chinese Mitten crab.

    Ballast water exchange at sea currently the only treatment method available for reducing non-indigenous coastal plankton. In this process, the coastal ballast water taken while in Port, is exchanged with oceanic ballast wate while in route. The receiving Port then is subjected to far few organisms in theoceanic ballast vs. the coastal ballast water.

    During the ballast water exchange experiments performed by SERC, effects of repeated exchanges were measured, and the survivorship of organisms were measured. Organisms were reduced by 90% in tankers arriving to Port Valdez from foreign ports.

    There are many sites in Prince William Sound that appear warm enough to host Green Crab populations.

    MARILYN begin here.

    For example:Ozone treatment E-Beam Radiative treatmentSeaKleen TreatmentShoreside treatments mention strategic reconfiguration

    Picture: Ballast Water Treatment Facility in Valdez

    Mention the September 8th & 9th Western Regional Panel meeting here in Alaska.

    Active on Communication, Education and Outreach subcommittees on ISAC

    Working with CEO to develop national web page

    Very impressed with grass roots movement we saw in Hawaii. The work they are doing there on invasive species is very much like what we are doing here on oil transportation.

    LISA begin here to go over sample website pages


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