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Applied Ethics in Agriculture Paul Lasley and Arne Hallam Fall, 2003 Sumber: Slide 2 Character is not the same thing as reputation. Character is what you are. Reputation is what people say you are. Josephson, 2002 Sumber: Slide 3 Mengapa kita melakukan studi tentang Etika dalam pertanian? About 10 years ago Phil Baumel and Paul Lasley began a series of studies that focused on ethics within farm cooperatives Grant from Farmers Cooperative Service Findings from the Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll Teaching a new course, Sociology/ Economics 362X, first offered fall, 2002 Sumber: Slide 4 What do you suppose coop managers and board members told us about ethics in agriculture? Sumber: Slide 5 Cooperative Managers and Board Members Identified Several Areas of Ethical Concern Shirking responsibilities Business dealings with friends, relatives, or competitors Sales incentives Pricing policies Illegal Practices Sumber: Slide 6 MENGAPA STANDAR ETIKA MENURUN ? Sumber: Slide 7 Alasan-alasan Perilaku Tidak-Etis 1.Extreme pressure to show a profit 2.No board oversight on management 3.Too much competition that it is unhealthy 4.Business is too complex for a lay board 5.Fewer farmers, greater business, more incentive to retain them as members 6.Young farmers lack appreciation of cooperatives 7.Tough economic times on the farm contributed to erosion in ethical standards. Sumber: Slide 8 Baghaimana pendapat Saudara tentang ceritera petani dari Iowa? Do you suppose they agree that ethics have declined among farmers? Can you provide examples? Sumber: Slide 9 Apa yang dikatakan oleh petani Iowa? (2002 Farm Poll, n=1942) At one time a persons word was as good as a signed contract; now you must get it in writing. 93% somewhat or strongly agreed In general, ethical standards in society have declined. 87% agreed Sumber: Slide 10 Apa yang diceriterakan oleh petani ? 1.I used to take a persons word as measure of his/her honor, but now-a-days you cant always simply accept what a person tells you. 85% agreed. 2.One reason ethical standards have declined is that people have lost respect for authority. 70% agreed 3.Often people admit they are not being ethical in paying the full amount of their taxes. 49% agreed. Sumber: Slide 11 Even among friends and neighbors, I am concerned that they no longer feel obliged to honor their word. 37% agreed Farmers ethical standards have declined. 57% agreed Sumber: Apa yang diceriterakan oleh petani ? Slide 12 ENAM PILAR KARAKTER (Source: Josephson, Making Ethical Decisions) Trustworthiness = KEPERCAYAAN Honesty Truthfulness Sincerity Candor Honesty in conduct Integrity Relability Sumber: Slide 13 Respect = MENGHORMATI Civility, courtesy, and decency Dignity and autonomy Tolerance and acceptance Responsibility = TANGGUNG-JAWAB Accountability Pursuit of Excellence Self Restraint Sumber: ENAM PILAR KARAKTER (Source: Josephson, Making Ethical Decisions) Slide 14 Fairness Process Impartiality Equity Caring Citizenship Sumber: ENAM PILAR KARAKTER (Source: Josephson, Making Ethical Decisions) Slide 15 Beberapa arahan untuk menentukan apakah suatu aktivitas itu ETIS? 1.The Golden Rule, you act in a way that you would expect others to act toward you 2.The Professional Ethic, You take only those actions that would be viewed as proper by an objective panel of your professional peers Sumber: Slide 16 3. Kants Categorical Imperative, Ask yourself, What if everyone behaved this way? 4. Child on Your Shoulder, Would you proudly make the same decision if your young child were witnessing your choice? 5. TV Test, Could you explain and justify your actions to general television audience? 6. The Des Moines Register Test, Would you like your friends and neighbors to read about this? Sumber: Beberapa arahan untuk menentukan apakah suatu aktivitas itu ETIS? Slide 17 EMPAT PERTANYAAN SEDERHANA 1.Could you or someone else suffer physical harm? 2.Could you or someone else suffer emotional pain? 3.Could the decision hurt your reputation, undermine your credibility, or damage important relationships? 4.Could the decision impede the achievement of any important goal? Sumber: Slide 18 TUJUH TAHAP UNTUK MEMPERBAIKI KEPUTUSAN 1.Stop and think 2.Clarify goals 3.Determine Facts 4.Develop options 5.Consider consequences 6.Choose 7.Monitor and modify Sumber: Slide 19 What happens when there is not adherence to a code of ethics? People begin to cut corners Most unethical and illegal activities start small Rationale or justifications often include, everyone else is doing it Erosion in ethics brings about greater regulation because trust has been violated Rules, regulations and laws reflect the formalization of ethics Sumber: Slide 20 Erosi Etika = Distrustful Culture Where people no longer trust each other Where extreme individualism is primary Where people no longer know each other With diminished respect, trust and cooperation, there are calls for regulations to monitor or regulate behaviors/actions Sumber: Slide 21 Gejala Distrust di Pertanian Legal representation Formalized contracts Fear of Liabilityliability insurance Less personal contactfear of strangers Formal communication Suspiciousness Sumber: Slide 22 What would a professional code of ethics in farming look like? Who should take the lead in drafting such a document, and how it could be used? Sumber: PERLUNYA MENEGAKKAN ETIKA DALAM PERTANIAN Slide 23 PERLUNYA KODE ETIK DALAM USAHA PERTANIAN Evidence is there has been an erosion in ethics The erosion in ethics has contributed to loss of trust, and consumer confidence, and calls for more regulations. A code of ethics might restore confidence and farming could be viewed a leader in pursuing higher ethical standard. Sumber: