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  • November 8-10, 2004 - 1 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    APEX CFM-56 Particle Emissions: Concentrations and Size Distributions

    Bruce Anderson, Eddie Winstead, Sandy Branham, Charles Hudgins, and Lee Thornhill

    NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 2 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    LaRC Project Objectives

    Characterize commercial aircraft particle physical properties (number densities, size, mass and volatility) as a function of engine power

    Examine the impact of fuel sulfur upon secondary aerosol formation

    Investigate the relationship between fuel aromatic content and EC/OC emissions

    Observe the evolution of particle concentrations and characteristics as the exhaust plume ages

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 3 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    LaRC Instruments

    LI-COR

    CO2 System

    Lag Chamber

    PCASP

    1 LPM To PUMP

    Filter Stack

    0 50 SLPM

    PUMP

    Metering Valve

    Sol. Valve

    Sol. Valve

    ORIFICE ~.8 SLPM

    P

    P

    Pump Exhaust

    0 10 SLPM

    Dryer HEPA

    0 10 SLPM

    Bypass Flow

    PSAP

    FM

    FM

    FM

    FM

    TSI 3022 FM

    PCV

    ~500 torr

    Filter

    Heater TSI 3760

    TSI 3760

    Heater

    D M A

    FC

    FC

    TSI 3025A

    TSI 3025A

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 4 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    Derived Aerosol Parameters

    Number Emission Index NEI= (X/CO2) * EI[CO2] * Mair/( * Mco2)

    Geometric Mean Diameter

    GMD = EXP{ ni* ln(Dpi)/ ni}

    Geometric Standard Deviation

    g = EXP{[ n

    i * (ln(Dpi) ln(GMD))

    2]/(N-1)}0.5

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 5 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    Home, Sweet Home

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 6 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 2000 4000 6000 80000.00E+000

    1.00E+014

    2.00E+014

    3.00E+014

    4.00E+014

    5.00E+014

    7% Power

    4% Power

    CFM-56 Emissions

    Nonv

    olat

    ile P

    artic

    le E

    I (m

    g/kg

    )

    Engine Run Time (sec)

    Number EI: Run-time Dependence

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 7 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    10 100

    0.0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    0.5

    100%65%

    30%

    7%

    CFM-56 Emissions: 1 m Grand Average

    dN

    /dLo

    g(Dp

    )

    Diameter (nm)

    Particle Size Distribution at 1 m

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 8 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 1005

    10

    15

    20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    45

    50

    Engine Power (%)

    CFM-56 Emissions: 1 and 10 m Data

    Nonv

    olat

    ile G

    MD

    (nm

    )

    Geometric Mean of Size Distribution

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 9 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    0.8

    1.0

    1.2

    1.4

    1.6

    1.8

    2.0

    Engine Power (%)

    CFM-56 Emissions: 1 and 10 m Data

    Aero

    sol S

    igm

    a

    Standard Deviation of Size Distribution

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 10 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    1E14

    1E151 m Grand AverageCFM-56 Emissions

    1 m

    Nonv

    olat

    ile P

    artic

    le E

    I (#/

    kg)

    Engine Power (%)

    Number Emission Indices

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 11 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    1E14

    1E15

    30 m Grand Average

    CFM-56 Emissions

    Nonv

    olat

    ile P

    artic

    le E

    I (#/

    kg)

    Engine Power (%)

    Number Emission Indices

    SUCCESS In-flight Average

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 12 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    1E14

    1E151 meter Rake

    CFM-56 Emissions

    High Sulfur

    High Aromatic

    Lo Sulfur

    Parti

    cle E

    I (#/

    kg)

    Engine Power (%)

    Fuel Dependence of Emission Indices

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 13 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    1E14

    1E15

    10 meter Rake

    CFM-56 Emissions

    High Sulfur

    High Aromatic

    Lo Sulfur

    Parti

    cle E

    I (#/

    kg)

    Engine Power (%)

    Fuel Dependence of Emission Indices

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 14 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    1E15

    1E16

    30 meter Rake

    CFM-56 Emissions

    High Sulfur

    High Aromatic

    Lo Sulfur

    Parti

    cle E

    I (#/

    kg)

    Engine Power (%)

    Fuel Dependence of Emission Indices

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 15 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    1E14

    1E15

    1E16

    1 m

    CFM-56 Emissions

    10 m

    30 m

    Hi Sulfur

    Parti

    cle E

    I (#/

    kg)

    Engine Power (%)

    Number EI: Age Dependence

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 16 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 1001E13

    1E14

    1E15

    1E16

    1 m

    CFM-56 Emissions

    10 m

    30 m

    Hi Aromatic

    Parti

    cle E

    I (#/

    kg)

    Engine Power (%)

    Number EI: Age Dependence

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 17 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    1E14

    1E15

    1E16

    1 m

    CFM-56 Emissions

    10 m

    30 m

    Lo Sulfur

    Parti

    cle E

    I (#/

    kg)

    Engine Power (%)

    Number EI: Age Dependence

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 18 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 1001E14

    1E15

    1E16

    Nonvolatile CN

    Total CN

    Lo Sulfur @ 30 meters

    CFM-56 Emissions

    Parti

    cle E

    I (#/

    kg)

    Engine Power (%)

    Fractional Volatility of Emissions

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 19 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    1E14

    1E15

    1E16

    Nonvolatile CN

    Total CN

    Hi Sulfur @ 30 metersCFM-56 Emissions

    Parti

    cle E

    I (#/

    kg)

    Engine Power (%)

    Fractional Volatility of Emissions

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 20 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    0 20 40 60 80 100

    1E14

    1E15

    1E16

    Nonvolatile CN

    Total CN

    Hi Aromatic @ 30 meters

    CFM-56 Emissions

    Parti

    cle E

    I (#/

    kg)

    Engine Power (%)

    Fractional Volatility of Emissions

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 21 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    10 100

    0

    500

    1000

    1500

    2000

    2500

    3000

    3500

    100%

    65%

    40%7%

    CFM-56 Emissions: 30 m High Sulfur

    dN

    /dLo

    g(Dp

    )

    Diameter (nm)

    Particle Size Distributions at 30 m

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 22 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    10 100

    0.01

    0.1

    1

    10

    100

    1000

    High Sulfur Fuel

    10 m

    1 m

    30 m

    CFM-56 Emissions: 7% Power

    dN

    /dLo

    g(Dp

    )

    Diameter (nm)

    Evolution of Size Distribution

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 23 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    10 100

    0.01

    0.1

    1

    10

    100

    1000

    High Sulfur Fuel

    10 m

    1 m

    30 m

    CFM-56 Emissions: 40% Power

    dN

    /dLo

    g(Dp

    )

    Diameter (nm)

    Evolution of Size Distribution

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 24 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    10 100

    0.01

    0.1

    1

    10

    High Sulfur Fuel

    10 m

    1 m

    30 m

    CFM-56 Emissions: 100% Power

    dN

    /dLo

    g(Dp

    )

    Diameter (nm)

    Evolution of Size Distribution

  • November 8-10, 2004 - 25 APEX Workshop Cleveland, Ohio Bruce Anderson, NASA LaRC

    Summary of Results

    CFM-56 engine emits 1014 to 1015 nonvolatile particles per kg fuel burned

    Soot particle emissions are highest just after engine start and decrease in time for a given power setting

    Soot particle number EIs generally increase with power

    Soot particle size (and mass) increases with power

    Secondary aerosol formation is dependent on fuel sulfur content

    Secondary aerosols are typically 10 times more abundant in aged plumes than primary aerosols

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