antipsychotic and antianxiety drugs
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- 1. Antipsychotic and Antianxiety Drugs By Devansh Mehta ICRI, INDIA Delhi Campus
- 2. Intro: The psychopharmacological agents or psychotropic drugs are those having primary effects on psyche and are used for treatment of psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric diagnostic categories are often imprecise. The criteria adopted overlap in individual patients. Nevertheless, broad divisions have to be made, primarily on the basis of predominant manifestation, to guide the use of drugs.
- 3. Psychoses: These are severe psychiatric illness with serious distortion of thought, behavior, capacity to recognize reality and of perception (delusions and hallucinations). There is inexplicable misperception and misevaluation, patient is unable to meet the ordinary demands of life. Acute and Chronic organic brain syndromes (Cognitive disorders): Such as delirium and dementia, some toxic or pathological basis can often be defined, prominent features are confusion, disorientation, defective memory and disorganized behavior. Functional Disorders: No underlying cause can be defined; memory and orientation are mostly retained but emotion, thought and behavior are seriously altered. Schizophrenia: Also known as split mind, splitting of perception and interpretation from reality hallucination, inability to think coherently. Paranoid states with marked persecutory or other kinds of fixed delusions and loss of insight into abnormality.
- 4. Affective disorders: The primary symptom is change in mood state, may manifest as Mania Elation, Hyperactivity, uncontrollable thought and speech, may be associated with violent behavior. Depression- sadness, guilt, physical and mental slowing, melancholia, self destructive ideation.
- 5. Neuroses: These are less serious, ability to comprehend reality is not lost, though patient may undergo extreme suffering. Depending on the predominant feature, it may be labelled as; Anxiety: An Unpleasant emotional state associated with uneasiness and concern for the future Phobic states: Fear of the unknown or of some specific objects, person or situations. Obsessive, compulsive : Limited abnormality of thought or behavior which the patient is not able to overcome even on voluntary efforts. Reactive depression: Due to physical illness, loss, blow to self esteem or bereavement, but is excessive or disproportionate Post-traumatic stress disorder: Varied symptoms following distressing experiences like war, riots, earthquakes etc. Hysterical : Dramatic symptoms resembling serious physical illness, but situational, and always in the presence of others, the patient does not feign but actually undergoes the symptoms, though the basis is only psychic and not physical.
- 6. Anti-Psychotic Drugs Phenothiazines Aliphatic side chain: Chlorpromazine, Triflupromazine Piperidine side chain: Thioridazine Piperazine side chain: Trifluoperazine, Fluphenazine
- 7. Butyrophenones: Haloperidol, Trifluperidol, Droperidol, Penfluridol, Thioxanthenes: Thiothixene, Flupenthixol Other Heterocyclics: Pimozide, Loxapine, Reserpine Atypical neuroleptics: Clozapine, Risperidone, Olanzapine
- 8. Pharmacological Actions CNS: Effects differ in normal and psychotic individuals In a Psychotic individual: It reduces irrational behavior, agitation and aggressiveness and controls psychotic symptomatology. Disturbed thought and behavior are gradually normalized and anxiety is relieved. Hyperactivity, hallucination and delusions are suppressed. All phenothiazine, Thioxanthenes and butyrophenones have the same antipsychotic efficacy, but potency differs in terms of equieffective doses. Performance and intelligence are relatively unaffected but vigilance is impaired. Extrapyrimidal motor disturbances are intimately linked to the antipsychotic effect but are more prominent in the high potency compounds and least in thioridazine. A predominance of lower frequency waves occurs in EEG and arousal response is dampened. However, no consistent effect on sleep architecture has been noted. The disturbed sleep pattern in a psychotic is normalized.
- 9. MOA All antipsychotics except clozapine have potent dopamine D2 receptor blocking action, antipsychotic potency has shown good correlation with their capacity to bind to D2 receptor. Phenothiazines and thioxanthines also block D1, D3 and D4 receptors. Blockade of dopaminergic projections to the temporal and prefrontal areas constituting the limbic system and in mesocortical areas is probably responsible for the anti-psychotic actions.
- 10. ANS: Neuroleptics have varying degrees of Alpha adrenergic blocking activity which may be graded as CPZ = triflupromazine > thioridazine > fluphenazine > Haloperidol > trifluperazine > Clozapine > pimozide i.e. more potent compounds have lesser Alpha blocking activity. CVS: Neuroleptics produce hypotension by a central as well as peripheral action on sympathetic tone. The hypotensive action is more marked after parenteral administration and roughly parallels the alpha adrenergic blocking potency.
- 11. CVS: High doses of CPZ directly depress the heart and produce ECG changes. (Q-T prolongation and suppression of T-wave). CPZ exerts some antiarrhythmic action, probably due to membrane stabilization. Skeletal Muscle: Neuroleptics have no effect on muscle fibres or neuromuscular transmission. They reduce certain types of spasticity: the site of action being in the basal ganglia or medulla oblongata. Spinal reflexes are not affected. Endocrine: Neuroleptics consistently increase prolactin release by blocking the inhibitory action of DA on pituitary lactotropes. This may result in galactorrhoea and gynaecomastia.
- 12. Distinctive features of Individual Neuroleptics Triflupromazine: An aliphatic side chain phenothiazine somewhat more potent than CPZ. It frequently produces acute muscle dystonias in children, specially when injected as antiemetic. Thioridazine: A low potency phenothiazine having marked central anticholinergic action. Incidenc of extrapyramidal side effects is very low Trifluoperazine, fluphenazine: These are high potency piperazine side chain phenothiazine. They have minimum autonomic actions; hypotension and sedation are not significant
- 13. Haloperidol: It is a potent antipsychotic with pharmacological profile resembling that of piperazine substituted phenothiazines Trifluperidol: It is similar to but slightly more potent than haloperidol Droperidol: A short acting potent neuroleptic occasionally used in anaesthesia Respiridone: Another compound whose antipsychotic activity has been ascribed to a combination of D2 + 5 HT 2 receptor blockade.
- 14. Uses 1. Psychoses: Schizophrenia: The neuroleptics are used primarily in functional psychoses: have indefinable but definite therapeutic effect in all forms: produce wide range of symptom relief 2. Mania: Antipsychotic are required for rapid control, may be given i.m. takes 1-3 days; lithium or carbamazepine may be started simultaneously or after the acute phase 3. Organic brain syndromes: Neuroleptics are used on a short term basis-one of the potent drugs is preferred to avoid mental confusion, hypotension and precipitation of seizures
- 15. Other uses To potentiate hypnotics, analgesics and anaesthetics Intractable hiccough: May respond to parenteral CPZ. Tetanus: CPZ is a secondary drug to achieve skeletal muscle relaxation Alcoholic hallucinosis, Huntingtons disease and Gilles de Tourette syndrom
- 16. Antianxiety drugs Anxiety : It is an emotional state, unpleasant in nature, associated with uneasiness, discomfort, and concern or fear about some defined or undefined future threat. Anti-anxiety drugs: These are an ill-defined group of drugs, mostly mild CNS depressants which are aimed to control the symptoms of anxiety, produce a restful state of mind without interfering with normal mental or physical functions.
- 17. Classification Benzodiazepine: Diazepam, Chlordiazepoxide, Oxazepam, Lorazepam, Alprazolam Azopirone: Buspirone, Gepirone, Ispapirone Sedative antihistaminic: Hydroxyzine Beta Blockers: Propanolol
- 18. Chlordiazepoxide: It was the first BZD to be used clinically. Preferred in chronic anxiety states, often combined with other drugs in psychosomatic diseases. Diazepam: It is quickly absorbed, produces a brief initial phase of strong action followed by prolonged milder due to two phase plasma concentration decay curve
- 19. Alprazolam: A high potency anxiolytic BZD which in addition has some mood elevating action in mild depression: is particularly useful in anxiety associated with depression. Good response has been obtained in panic disorders with severe anxiety and autonomic symptoms. Its plasma t is about 12 hours, but an active metabolite is produced. Alprazolam is claimed to cause less drowsiness, but some patients experience anxiety in between doses
- 20. Other Antianxiety Drugs Buspirone: It is the first azapirone, a new class of antianxiety drugs, distinctly different from BZDs Does not produce significant sedation or cognitive / functional impairment Does not interact with BZD receptor or modify GABAergic transmission Does not produce tolerance or physical dependence Does not suppress BZD or barbiturate withdrawal syndrome Has no muscle relaxant or anticonvulsant activity.
- 21. Buspirone: It relieves mild to moderate generalized anxiety, but is ineffective in severe cases, in those showing panic reaction and in OCD. Beta-blockers: Many symptoms of anxiety are due to sympathetic overactivity and these symptoms reinforce anxiety. Propranolol and other non-selective Beta blockers help anxious patients troubled by these symptoms, by cutting the viscious cycle and provide symptomatic relief
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