antebellum reform movements
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DESCRIPTIONAntebellum Reform Movements. McElhaney APUSH. AP Outline. 12. Creating an American Culture Cultural nationalism Education reform/professionalism Religion; revivalism Utopian experiments: Mormons, Oneida Community Transcendentalists National literature, art, architecture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Antebellum Reform MovementsMcElhaneyAPUSH
AP Outline12. Creating an American CultureCultural nationalism Education reform/professionalism Religion; revivalism Utopian experiments: Mormons, Oneida Community Transcendentalists National literature, art, architecture Reform crusades Feminism; roles of women in the nineteenth century Abolitionism Temperance Criminals and the insane
Key Terms to Know and Memorize
Reform=Change for ImprovementMain impulses Faith in human natureGoodness of the individualDesire for order and controlDesire to remake societyReligious/moral impulses
RomanticismTranscendentalistsUtopian SocietiesSecond Great AwakeningTemperance CrusadeFeminismAbolitionism
Second Great AwakeningSimilar to First Great Awakening:Recall- Evangelists (Preachers) Sinners in the hands of and Angry GodJonathan Edwards 1741Popular Revival MeetingsCampsWASPsNew Religious Sects Baptists and MethodistsRevivals increase popularity of reform movements
Revivals = giving new life, to bring back to life specifically Popular Religion (1830s)Second Great Awakening Widespread Christian MovementRevival meetings= new lifeEmotional SermonsIncreased the amount of people participating in churches (particularly women)Abolition and Temperance movement are directly linked to 2nd Great Awakening
Spread Christian ideas of equality and morality.
RomanticismHow do the following represent concepts of American Romanticism?Hudson River SchoolJames Fennimore CooperWalt WhitmanHerman MelvilleEdgar Allan Poe
RomanticismArtistic movementEmerges 1800-1820Message That would express their nations special virtues.Discovering American Art as an American creation.
Inspired by expression of inner spiritWork to unleash capacity for good and joyNostalgic- looking fondly back on earlier timesNature and God togetherN.I.N.E.S
Motifs in RomanticismIndividual REBELLION The Nostalgic (sympathetic fondness) interpretation of the historic PAST Subjects from MYTH and FOLKLORE Glorification of NATURE, faraway settings SENTIMENTALISM Nobility of the uncivilized man and simple life GOTHIC themes supernatural, mysterious
Romanticism in PaintingHudson River School (NY)First Natural LandscapesPower of NatureSublime (feeling of awe, feeling of wonderment)Grandeur of NatureNature offers promiseSense of Nostalgia in natureChurch
Romanticism in Literature linkWashington Irving (1809)Legend of Sleepy Hollow American theme, Dutch in New York, early AmericaJames Fenimore Cooper (1820s)Wrote about American wildernessLeather Stocking TalesLast of the Mohicans Reflected American Ideals:Independent IndividualNatural Inner GoodnessNeed for order
Romanticism in Literature 2Walt Whitman (Link)Poet of American DemocracyNYCThemes Celebrated DemocracySpirit of the IndividualLiberation of individualPleasures of the FleshAmerican SpiritEmotional and Physical ReleasePersonal fulfillmentHomosexual
Leaves of GrassGreatest collectionWhen Lilacs Last in the dooryard bloomdLincoln tributeCaptain My Captain about Lincolns Assassination
Stop this day and night with me, and you shall possess the origin of all poems, You shall possess the good of the earth and sun there are millions of suns left, You shall no longer take things at second or third hand, nor look through the eyes of the dead, nor feed on the spectres in books, You shall not look through my eyes either, nor take things from me, You shall listen to all sides, and filter them from yourself.
Romanticism in Literature 3Herman Melville (link)NY, 1819 Best of his eraMoby Dick pub 1851Human spirit was troubled Self DestructiveMan against nature
Romanticism in Literature 4Edgar Allen Poe (link)Died 1849Poems and stories Sad and Macabre1845 the RavenTheme of individuals rising above to see deeper world of spirit and emotion
Poe exposes the underside of the American dream of the self-made man and showed the price of materialism and excessive competition -- loneliness, alienation, and images of death-in-life.
Transcendentalists (Link)Emerges out of RomanticismNew England Reaction against traditional Logic and Enlightenment- non-conformist valuesIndependent thinkingReferred to reason as the ability to grasp beauty and truth through--- Instinct and Emotion (the highest human faculties)
More TranscendentalismTRANSCENDENTALISM = a philosophy that asserts the primacy of the SPIRITUAL over the MATERIAL and EMPIRICAL
According to Kant, there are some ideas and aspects of knowledge which are beyond what the senses can perceive, but are INTUITIONS of the mind itself he named them TRANSCENDENTAL FORMS
The TRANSCENDENT is the fundamental reality
The ultimate truth transcends the physical world
Transcendentalists and NatureNature was the source of deep Human inspirationHelps individuals see truth within their soulsGenuine Spirituality come through communion with nature
Super individualism was at their core.Philosophically though, there was a center and it was about the notion of spontaneous reason.
people are capable of discovering a truth solely on the basis of intuition.
Walter Harding, in The Days of Henry Thoreau, says Kant and Hegel argued that there is a body of knowledge within man, innate, and that this knowledge transcended the senses, thus Transcendentalism. This knowledge was the voice of God within Man. It was central to the Transcendentalists' belief that the child was born with an ability to tell right from wrong. His moral sense became calloused as he grew and listened to the world rather than that inner voice. Particularly Alcott called for a return to a childish innocence and for one to heed the voice of God within.
Ralph Waldo Emerson (link)Leader, Unitarian Minister, devoted to TranscendentalismWrote Essays, Lectures, Very Popular
Advocated the commitment of the individual to full exploration of the inner capacities.
Emerson: the NationalistWanted cultural Independence1837 The American Scholar American dependence on culture & art is over Truth & beauty can be derived from instinct & creative genius Let the single man plant himself indomitably on his instincts there abide. And a huge world will come round to him.
R.W. Emerson Essay Nature 1836In the quest for Self-Fulfillment Individuals should work for Communion with Nature In the woods, we return to reason and faith Standing on the bare ground my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, all mean egotism vanishes I am part and particle of God.
RW Emerson: essay 1841 Self RelianceNothing is at last sacred but the integrity of your own mindSelf Reliance: was a quest for unity of the UniverseThe wholeness of godThe great spiritual force/essence of spiritual soulEach person has innate capacity to find divinity personally
Henry David ThoreauTranscendentalistRepudiated repressive forcesIndividuals should:Work for self-realizationResist conformityShould respond to own instinctsWalden- in the Concord (Mass) WoodsMost famous bookLived alone for 2 years
ThoreauI went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to confront only the essential facts of life and see if I could not learn what It had to teach. And not when I came to die I discover that I had not lived
ThoreauWent to jail brieflyRefused to pay a Poll TaxProtested Slavery1849: Essay Resistance to Civil GovernmentAn individuals personal morality has first claim on his actionsGovernment that violated personal morality had no legitimate authority An individual response should be Civil Disobedience or Passive Resistence
Utopian Societies, Brook Farm, New Harmony, Oneida Community, MormanUtopian movements are radical manifestations of the reform impulse.They have the common vision to remake society in a more perfect wayCommunal characteristicsSeparate from mainstream societyCooperative
Utopian MovementsBrook FarmMassachusetts 1841-47TranscendentalistsIndividual strives for Self- RealizationCommunalLeisure is key New HarmonyRobert OwenA village of cooperation
Oneida Community 1848NYRejected traditional family and marriage values
Oneida CommunityOneida Community 1848NYJohn Humphrey NoyesRejected traditional family and marriage values All residents were married to all other residents
No permanent conjugal tiesSexual behavior was monitored to prevent abuse.Children raised communally
Liberation from the demands of male lust.
ShakersReligious extremistsRe-defined traditional sexualityFounded 1770sNortheast + Northwest 1840sShaking ecstatic movement- would shake themselves free from sin while performing a loud chant.Commitment to Celibacy!?
VoluntaryNo children born into ShakerismContact between men and women was limitedSocial discipline was importantA view of Shaker Meeting from 1885. A photographer from the Poland Spring Hotel took this image. The Shakers are seated in the front benches. The spectators and guests from the Poland Spring Hotel are in the back rows.
MormonsChurch of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS)Joseph Smith (prophet for Mormons)1830s Book of MormonTranslation of set of Golden TabletsAncient Civilization in America (one of lost tribes of Israel)Dark Skin = SinStory of American Hebrews
Joseph SmithBrigham Young
Mormons ContinuedSmith creates the movement and obtains convertsRigid way of life:PolygamySecrecyLife Style (very prescriptive, foods, behavior)New York, Illinois, Smith Arrested and killed by mob