annotate your ecg

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Annotate your ECG. Electrocardiogram (ECG). Electrodes are placed on the skin over opposite sides of the heart, and the electrical potentials generated recorded with time. The result is an ECG. P wave = electrical activity during atrial systole - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Annotate your ECG

  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)P wave = electrical activity during atrial systole

    QRS complex = electrical activity during ventricular systole

    T wave = ventricular repolarisation (recovery of ventricular walls)

    Q-T interval contraction time (ventricles contracting)

    T-P interval filling time ventricles relaxed and filling with bloodPattern are studied in different conditions and compared to the standard ECG in order to diagnose heart conditions, such as arrythmias and fibrillation. Fibrillation is stopped by passing a strong electric current through the chest wall the heart stops for up to 5 seconds after which it begins to beat in a controlled wayElectrodes are placed on the skin over opposite sides of the heart, and the electrical potentials generated recorded with time. The result is an ECG.

  • FeatureDescriptionDurationRR intervalThe interval between an R wave and the next R wave; normal resting heart rate is between 60 and 100 bpm.0.6 to 1.2sP waveDuring normal atrial depolarization, the main electrical vector is directed from the SA node towards the AV node and spreads from the right atrium to the left atrium. This turns into the P wave on the ECG.80msPR intervalThe PR interval is measured from the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex. The PR interval reflects the time the electrical impulse takes to travel from the sinus node through the AV node and entering the ventricles. The PR interval is, therefore, a good estimate of AV node function.120 to 200msPR segmentThe PR segment connects the P wave and the QRS complex. The impulse vector is from the AV node to the bundle of His to the bundle branches and then to the Purkinje fibers. This electrical activity does not produce a contraction directly and is merely traveling down towards the ventricles, and this shows up flat on the ECG. The PR interval is more clinically relevant.50 to 120msQRS complexThe QRS complex reflects the rapid depolarization of the right and left ventricles. The ventricles have a large muscle mass compared to the atria, so the QRS complex usually has a much larger amplitude than the P-wave.80 to 120msJ-pointThe point at which the QRS complex finishes and the ST segment begins. It is used to measure the degree of ST elevation or depression present.N/AST segmentThe ST segment connects the QRS complex and the T wave. The ST segment represents the period when the ventricles are depolarized. It is isoelectric.80 to 120msT waveThe T wave represents the repolarization (or recovery) of the ventricles. The interval from the beginning of the QRS complex to the apex of the T wave is referred to as the absolute refractory period. The last half of the T wave is referred to as the relative refractory period (or vulnerable period).160msST intervalThe ST interval is measured from the J point to the end of the T wave.320msQT intervalThe QT interval is measured from the beginning of the QRS complex to the end of the T wave. A prolonged QT interval is a risk factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. It varies with heart rate and, for clinical relevance, requires a correction for this, giving the QTc.Up to 420ms in heart rate of 60 bpmU waveThe U wave is hypothesized to be caused by the repolarization of the interventricular septum. It normally has a low amplitude, and even more often is completely absent. It always follows the T wave, and also follows the same direction in amplitude. If it is too prominent, suspect hypokalemia, hypercalcemia or hyperthyroidism.[31]J waveThe J wave, elevated J-point or Osborn wave appears as a late delta wave following the QRS or as a small secondary R wave. It is considered pathognomonic of hypothermia or hypercalcemia.[32]

  • Go through ECG

    Analyse the different methods of taking body measurements

    Explain the course of events that leads to atherosclerosis

    Describe the blood clotting process and its role in cardiovascular disease (CVD)

    Know the symptoms of CVD

    Learning Outcomes

  • Leads to coronary vascular disease (CVD)Fatty deposits block artery or cause clot (thrombosis) to occurBlockage of coronary arteries causes heart attack (myocardial infarction)Blockage of arteries supplying brain leads to stroke

  • Thin endothelium layer of cells on inside of artery becomes damaged e.g. by high blood pressure or cigarette toxinsWhen lining damaged, large white blood cells move to artery wall and accumulate blood chemicals, especially cholesterolFatty deposit builds up - an ATHEROMA

  • Calcium salts and fibrous tissue also build up at site - forms PLAQUE (hard swelling)Fibrous tissue means artery loses elasticity (hardens)Plaque causes narrowing of arteriesDifficult for blood to pump rise in blood pressureLeads to POSITIVE FEEDBACK (plaque leads to high blood pressure which leads to more plaque)Oxygen and nutrients cant get to cells

  • BMI (body mass index)

    Need height Need waist

    BMI = Mass kg / height m2But wait .....

  • Waist/HipMeasuring tapeTo determine the ratio, divide your waist measurement by your hip measurement.

    A waist to hip ratio of more than 0.95 for men and 0.85 for women is apple shape more PRONE to heart disease

  • Skinfold measurements: Folds of skin are measured with a caliper. The measurements are used in equations that link the thickness of skinfolds to percent body fat calculations made from more precise experiments.

  • Percentage fatFrom skin fold orElectric impulse

    Nowadays a pod can be used

    DescriptionWomenMenEssential fat1013%25%Athletes1420%613%Fitness2124%1417%Average2531%1824%Obese32%+25%+

  • BMIWaist/Hip ratioPercentage fatSkin fold callipers

    So why do we need fat?

  • Body cannot synthesise (so need to be supplied in diet)Fat soluble vitamins (A,D,E and K) only enter our diet in fats

    SO fats are essential to our diet to avoid deficiency symptoms e.g. linoleic acid deficiency (scaly skin, hair loss)Also for .....

  • In cell membranesEssential for hormones etc.

  • Rearrange these in the correct order

    OXYGEN AND NUTRIENTS CANT GET INTO CELLSFibrous tissue caused artery to lose elasticityFatty deposits then build up forming an ATHEROMAThin layer of cells in artery inner membrane are damagedCalcium salts and fibrous tissue build up forming hard plaqueNarrow arteries make it difficult to pump blood so blood pressure risesThe plaque causes the arteries to narrowHigh blood pressure damages inner artery wall even more so cycle continues = POSTIVE FEEDBACKWhite blood cells move to damaged wall and accumulate cholesterol

  • As the artheroma grows the artery thickens and loses its elasticity. The diameter of the artery becomes reduced and blood flow becomes restricted resulting in increased blood pressure.

  • Fatty plaque in artery rupturesCholesterol released leading to clot formationBlood supply to heart blockedHeart muscle ischaemic (without blood)Muscles starved of oxygen too long are permanently damaged leading to dead cellsLarge area of dead cells more likely to be fatal

  • NumbnessDizzinessConfusionSlurred speechBlurred or loss of visionParalysis of one side of body

  • Short lived strokeFull recovery possiblewarning

  • Chest painHeart muscle respires ANAEROBICALLYProduces lactic acidSymptoms similar to indigestion

  • Heart beats irregularlyCan lead to heart failure

  • Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of fatty material (consisting mainly of cholesterol), fibrous material and calcium forming an atheroma or plaque beneath the endothelium. As the artheroma grows the artery thickens and loses its elasticity. The diameter of the artery becomes reduced and blood flow becomes restricted resulting in increased blood pressure. Atherosclerosis is the root cause of various cardio vascular diseases including angina, heart attack, stroke and peripheral vascular disease.

  • 2. Think up a way to remember the chemical changes in the bloodDamage to vessels wall means blood can come into direct contact with collagen in wallThis causes LOADS of chemical changes in the blood:Soluble plasma protein PROTHROMBIN is converted into THROMBIN (enzyme)THROMBIN causes soluble plasma protein FIBRINOGEN to form long INSOLUBLE strands of protein FIBRINFIBRIN strands form tangled mess that traps blood cells to form a clotDemonstrate

  • Construct a flow chart using words and annotated pictures showingwhat happens in atherosclerosis.

    Key points in Atherosclerosis:

    Endothelial damageInflammatory responsePlaque formationRaised blood pressure

    Key points in Blood clotting process:

    Conversion of soluble proteins to insoluble protein



    Cholesterol is carried around the body by proteins. These combinations of cholesterol and proteins are called lipoproteins.There are two main types of lipoproteins:LDL (low-density lipoprotein)is theharmful type of cholesterol.HDL (high-density lipoprotein) is aprotective type of cholesterol



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