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DESCRIPTIONAngiology 脉管系统. 山东大学医学院 解剖教研室 李振华. Composition. Cardiovascular system 心血管系统 Lymphatic system 淋巴系统. The cardiovascular system. Organization Heart 心 A muscle pump to maintain the flow of blood, Consist of four chambers (right and left atria, right and left ventricles) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Composition Cardiovascular system Lymphatic system
The cardiovascular systemOrganization Heart A muscle pump to maintain the flow of blood, Consist of four chambers (right and left atria, right and left ventricles) Artery a. carry blood away from the heart Veins v. carry blood back to the heartCapillary microscopic vessels, the area of exchange between blood and tissue fluid
Blood circulationSystemic circulation left ventricleaorta and its branchescapillaries of bodysuperior and inferior vena cavaright atriumPulmonary circulation right ventriclepulmonary a.capillaries of lungpulmonary v.right atrium
Vascular anastomosis Anastomosis between a.Anastomosis between v.Arteriolovenular anastomosis Collateral vessels Circulation
Rectal venous plexus
The ArteriesCharacteristicsSymmetry In the trunk of the body consist parietal and visceral branches Shortest possible courseRun on flexor surfacesUsually do not pass directly through muscles, avoiding compressionTogether with the veins and nerves in a sheath of fascia to form neurovascular bundle
Arteries of pulmonary circulation Pulmonary trunk Arises from right ventricle Runs up, back ,and to the leftBifurcates inferior to aortic arch into right and left pulmonary arteries, one for each lung
Arteries of systemic circulation Aorta Ascending aorta Aortic arch Brachiocephalic trunk right common carotid a. right subclavian a. Left common carotid a. Left subclavian a. Descending aorta Thoracic aorta Abdominal aorta
Arteries of head and neckCommon carotid a.External carotid a. Internal carotid a. Subclavian a.
Arteries of upper limbAxillary a. Brachial a. Radial a. Ulnar a. Superficial palmar arch deep palmar arc
Thoracic aorta Parietal branches Nine pairs posterior intercostals arteries One pair subcostal Visceral branches
Visceral branches Paired branchesMiddle suprarenal artery Renal artery Testicular (ovarian) artery Unpaired branchesCeliac trunk Superior mesenteric a. Inferior mesenteric a. Parietal branches
Arteries of pelvisCommon iliac a. Internal iliac a. External iliac a.
Arteries of lower limbFemoral a. Popliteal a. Posterior tibial a. Anterior tibial a. dorsal a. of foot
The Veins General featureThin walls, larger lumens, venous valves, venous plexus, venous reteTwo sets Superficial vein Deep veinsSpecial structures: sinuses of dura mater diploic veins
Diploic veinsSinuses of dura mater
Superior vena cava and its tributaries
Veins of head and neckInternal jugular veinExternal jugular veinBrachiocephalic vein: venous angle
Veins of upper limbDeep vein: have the same names as their companion arteriesSuperficial veins: cephalic v. basilica v. median cubital v.
Veins of thoraxSuperior vena cava Azygos v. Hemiazygos v. accessory hemiazygos v. Veins of vertebral column
Inferior vena cava system Veins of lower limbDeep vein: have the same names as their companion arteriesSuperficial veins: great saphenous v. small saphenous
Veins of pelvisInternal iliac v. External iliac v.Common iliac v.
Inferior vena cava and its tributaries Hepatic portal v.
The Lymphatic SystemHeart Artery Capillaries Vein Cell Tissue fluidLymphatic capillaryLymphatic vesselLymphatic nodeLymphatic trunkLymphatic duct
CompositionLymphatic vesselLymphatic capillaryLymphatic vessels: two sets, superficial and deepLymphatic trunks: nine Lymphatic ducts: thoracic duct, right lymphatic duckLymphatic organLymphatic nodesTonsil, spleen, thymus Lymphatic tissue
Lymphatic nodeAfferent vessels Afferent vessels
Thoracic ductRight lymphatic duck
Introduction of the nervous system
The Nervous System --DivisionsCentral nervous system (CNS) 1. Brain 2. Spinal cord Peripheral nervous system (PNS) 1. Cranial n. 12 pairs) 2. Spinal n. ( 31 pairs) 3. Visceral n. Visceral sensory n.Visceral motor n.Sympathetic part Parasympathetic part
The Cranial Nerves Olfactory nerve Optic nerve Oculomotor nerve Trochlear nerve Trigeminal nerve Abducent nerve Facial nerve Vestibulocochlear nerve Glossopharyngeal nerve Vagus nerve Accessory nerve Hypoglossal nerve
General description31 pairs spinal nerves: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal nerve. Formation: each spinal nerve is formed by union of anterior and posterior roots at intervertebral foramen 1.The anterior root Contains motor fibers for skeletal muscles. Those from T1 to L2 contain sympathetic fibers; S2 to S4 also contain parasympathetic fibers.2. The posterior root Contains sensory fibers whose cell bodies are in the spinal ganglion.
Functional components1. Somatic efferent nerve fibers (SE): fibers that transmit motor impulses from spinal cord to skeletal muscles.2. Visceral efferent nerve fibers(VE): fibers that transmit motor impulses from spinal cord to smooth muscles, cardiac muscle and glands.3. Somatic afferent nerve fibers(SA): fibers that transmit exteroceptive and proprioceptive impulses from body to spinal cord 4. Visceral afferent nerve fibers(VA): fibers that transmit interoceptive impulses from the viscera to spinal cord
Branches of spinal nerves1. Anterior branch : largest , innervates anterolateral body wall and limbsthe great nerve plexus, e.g. the cervical, brachial, lumbar, and sacral, are formed by anterior rami2. Posterior branch : innervates the back of the trunk3. Communicating branch : connect the spinal nerve to the sympathetic trunk4. Meningeal branch : re-enters vertebral canal through intervertebral foramen to dura mater
Cervical plexus Formation: formed by anterior rami of C1-C4 spinal nervesPosition: lies in front of the origin of levator scapulae and scalenus medius and deep to the superior part of the sternocleidomastoid
Brachial plexus Formation: Formed by anterior rami of C5-C8 and T1 spinal nervesPosition: Passes through the scalene fissure to posterosuperior of subclavian artery, then enters the axilla to form three cords
Anterior branches of thoracic nervesIntercostal nerves (anterior rami of T1- T11) Subcostal nerve (anterior ramus of T12) Distribution: distributed to intercostales and anterolateral abdominal muscles, skin of thoracic and abdominal wall, parietal pleura and peritoneum
Lumbar plexus Formation: formed by anterior rami of L1-L3, a part of anterior rami of T12and L4Position: lies within substance of psoas majorBranchesIliohypogastric n. Ilioinguinal n. Lateral femoral cutaneous n.Femoral n. Obturator n. Genitofemoral n.
Sacral plexus Formation: formed by anterior rami of L4 and L5 spinal nerves (the lumbrosacral trunk) and anterior rami of sacral and coccygeal nervesPosition: lies in pelvic cavity, anterior to sacrum and piriformis