andhra pradesh geography

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The document covered the Physical ,social and economic geography of Andhra Pradesh. It will be useful for the students whose preparing for APPSC exams in English medium. It is written after verifying many books to make it more useful for students.

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Location of Andhra Pradesh

1. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF AP

Geographical Location: Andhra Pradesh is situated on the country's southeastern coast between 1241' and 22N latitude and 77 and 8440'E longitude AP is bordered by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the east, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west. The total area of Andhra Pradesh Is 2, 75,045 sq, km. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. AP is a part of the major Indo-Australian Plate a part of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland.

According to historical geology, it is one of the very few oldest land masses of the Indian sub-continent - older in geological age than the Himalayas or the Indo-Gangetic plain, it is covered by the oldest rocks on the earth,

AP located in Tropical zone and the climate is Tropical monsoonal climatePhysiographic Divisions

The state can be divided into three distinct physical regions. They are 1. Coastal Plains covers 35% of the area of the state.2. Eastern Ghats- covers 13% of the area of the state3. Deccan Plateau -covers 52% of the area of the stateCoastal Plain AP has 2nd longest coast line of 974 Km in India. East coast is an emergent coast.

The coastal plain extends from the Bay of Bengal to the foot hills of Eastern Ghats

Extends from Icchapuram in Srikakulam Dist to South of Pulicat Lake in Nellore Dist.

Height varies between 0-150 m and height increases towards Eastern Ghats

The Krishna and the Godavari Deltas form the central part of the plains and the shape of the delta is Arcuate. North coast called Northern circars and south coast is called Coramandel coast i,e North and south of false divi point. It has two wet lands 1.Kolleru Lake 2.Pulicat Lake and Coringa wild life sanctuary near Kakinada. Important Mangrove forests located along the coast are Coringa ,Krishna estuary and Godavari estuary The Eastern Ghats The Eastern Ghats are a rugged, hilly terrain running almost parallel to the eastern coast of India.

The Eastern Ghats are divisible into three zones: the northern Eastern Ghats, the middle Eastern Ghats (Kadapa hills), and the southern Eastern Ghats. Of these three zones, the northern and middle portions lie in Andhra Pradesh.

The Eastern Ghats are located between 11 30' - 22 00' N and 76 50' - 86 30' E in a N-E to S-W axis. The Ghats cover an area of about 75,000 sq. km with an average width of 200 km in the north and 100 km in the south.

They extend over a length of 1,750 km between the rivers Mahanadi and Vaigainal.

The elevation of the Eastern Ghats is from 750 m to 1,672 m. Mahendragiri in AP-Odisha boarder in Ganjam dist is the highest peak of Eastern Ghats. Nallamalli Hills is largest hills situated between Krishna and Penneru Rivers The predominant rocks are khondalites and charnokites; These ranges are the source for west-flowing rivers (Machkund, Sabari, Sileru, Indravati etc.) and the east-flowing rivers ( Vamsadhara, Nagavalli etc).

Local Names are

Papikondalu - East and West Godavari Nallamala hills- Kurnool, Mahabubnagar, Guntur, Prakasam and Kadapa districts

Erramala hills Kurnool

Seshachalam Hills - Kadapa and Chittoor districts

Velikonda- Nellore and ChittoorDeccan Plateau

The peninsular plateau covers 52% of the area and lies within an altitude of 150-600m. It comprises numerous hills, seasonal streams and tanks

It is situated in the west of Eastern Ghats

Telengana Plateau is Part of the Deccan Plateau, comprises of the interior region of Andhra Pradesh. North of Krishna River is the plateau of Telengana. South of the Krishna River, lying in the Rayalseema plateau region. i,e Kurnool and Ananthapur dist. It is abode of minerals including coal and rich in Black cotton soil.

Geology of the stateThe geological formations of the State are:

(1) The unclassified Archaean crystalline rocks mainly the granitic, but in eastern ghats comprising granulite suites (khondalites and kodurites),

(2) The MiddleUpper Proterozoic the Cuddapahs and its equivalents

(3) The Mesozoic the coal bearing Gondwana strata,

(4) Eocene lava flows(the Deccan traps) and

(5) The semi-consolidated or unconsolidated tertiary and recent rocks.Beaches

Bheemunipatnam or Bhimili near visakhapatnam Kakinada Uppada Road Beach

Kalingapatnam Beach is located in Srikakulam District

Kottapatnam Beach and Motupalle Beach near Ongole town

Krishnapatnam Beach and Maipadu Beach in Nellore District.

Manginapudi Beach or Machilipatnam

Ramakrishna ,Rushikonda and Lawsons bay in Visakhapatnam.

Suryalanka Beach near Bapatla

Vodarevu Beach near Chirala of Prakasam District

Islands

Sriharikota island - is a barrier island off the coast of the southern state of Andhra Pradesh in India. It houses India's only satellite launch centre in the Satish Dhawan Space Centre (also known as SHAR). It separates the Pulicat Lake from the Bay of Bengal.

Hope Island is a small island situated off the coast of Kakinada, India, in Bay of Bengal.

Lakes

Kolleru- is a largest freshwater lake in India located between Krishna and Godavari delta. Habitat for many resident and migratory birds, including the Grey or Spot-billed Pelican (Pelecanus philippensis). It is recognised under the international Ramsar Convention in November 2002 Pulicat Lake - is the second largest brackish water lake or lagoon in India. It shares the border of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu states on the Coromandal Coast in South India. The lake is most noted for the many Greater Flamingos .Water falls

Ethipothala Falls is on the Chandravanka River, a tributary of river Krishna. It is 11 KM near to Nagarjuna Sagar Dam,located in Guntur dist. Kaigal waterfall is also called Dumukurallu waterfalls, near the Kaigal village in Chittoor district .

Kuntala water fall located on the Kadam river , a tributary of Godavari in Adilabad dist.

Talakona and Kailasakona wqater falls in chittoor dist.2. Climate of A.P

The climate is hot and humid with temperatures ranging from 15 C to 45 C.

Precipitation is mainly during the southwest monsoon (June-September). Nearly 80% precipitation falls during this period, the rest during the northeast monsoon (November-December).

The normal annual rainfall of the State is 940 m.m.

Mean annual rainfall of the State ranges from 500 mm in the south to 1,210 mm in the north. The northeastern areas along the coastline are periodically lashed by cyclones.Andhra Pradesh Climate is generally hot and humid

Highest temperatures recorded above 45 C. Kothgudem in Khammam and Rentachintala of Guntur district recorded the highest temperatures over 45 degree Celsius.

The influence of South-West Monsoon is predominant in Telangana region (716m.m) followed by Coastal Andhra (620 m.m) and Rayalaseema (407 m.m), North-East Monsoon provides high amount of rainfall in Coastal Andhra area (324 m.m) followed by Rayalaseema (238 m.m) and Telangana (129 m.m). Rainfall variability is high in lowest rainfall regions.

As per Koppen climatic classification ,AP has As i.e Tropical wet and dry and Aw ie Tropical dry type of climate Rayalaseema region ,Nalgonda ,Mahabubnagar districts are frequent drought prone areas due to low rainfall. Govt declares drought affected mandals when they received deficit rainfall of above

(-)20% is of the normal rainfall.

3. SOILSAndhra Pradesh is endowed with a variety of soils ranging from poor sands to highly fertile deltaic alluviums.

Red soils occupy over 66% of the cultivated area and are mostly situated in Rayalaseema and Telangana districts. Red soils are composed of weathered crystalline and metamorphic rock and get their color from a high diffusion of iron. These soils have a low nutrient status.

Black soils cover nearly 25% of the cultivated area. They are also called as Regurs or Vertisols. These are useful for cotton cultivation. The black soils located in the districts of Khammam, Karimnagar, Warangal, East and West Godavari , Krishna and Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore.

The alluvial loamy clay soils found in Krishna and Godavari deltas cover 5% of the cultivated area.

The coastal sands occupy only 3% while the remaining 1% is covered by laterite soils in certain pockets of the State.4. Drainage system

The flow of water through well-defined channels is called Drainage and the network of such channels is known as Drainage system. AP drainage system characteristics

Part of Peninsular drainage system

It is only Rain fed system and rivers are seasonal.

All rivers are east flowing and joining Bay of Bengal All rivers are matured.

Andhra Pradesh is rightly called A RIVER STATE as it is blessed with major river systems like the Godavari, Krishna, Pennar, Vamsadhara and 36 other rivulets. The states share of dependable flows at 75% dependability from the river systems is estimated at 2769 TMC (Thousand Million Cubic Feet).

Name of the BasinCatchment AreaAvailability of Water

123

Krishna River Basin76.25811.00

Godavari River Basin73.201480.00

Pennar River Basin47.1198.65

Vamsadhara River Basin1.9352.50

Other River Basins63.58326.86

Andhra Pradesh262.072769.01

Godavari River The river Godavari, the largest of the peninsular rivers, and third largest in India, drains about 10% of India's total geographical area.

The catchment area of the river is 3,12,812 sq.km. and is spread in the states of Maharashtra (48.6%), Andhra Pradesh (23.4%), Madhya Pr

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