Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art

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<ul><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 1/141</p><p>McMaster University</p><p>DigitalCommons@McMaster</p><p>Open Access Dissertations and Theses Open Dissertations and Theses</p><p>1-1-1978</p><p>Sakra in Early Buddhist ArtLeona Anderson</p><p>This Thesis is brought to you for free and open access by the Open Dissertations and Theses at DigitalCommons@McMaster. It has been accepted for</p><p>inclusion in Open Access Dissertations and Theses by an authorized administrator of DigitalCommons@McMaster. For more information, please</p><p>contact scom@mcmaster.ca.</p><p>Recommended CitationAnderson, Leona, "Sakra in Early Buddhist Art" (1978). Open Access Dissertations and Theses. Paper 5624.http://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/opendissertations/5624</p>http://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/http://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/opendissertationshttp://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/open_dissmailto:scom@mcmaster.camailto:scom@mcmaster.cahttp://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/open_disshttp://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/opendissertationshttp://digitalcommons.mcmaster.ca/</li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 2/141</p><p>'Sl lG'l\ N Ei&gt;ll LY BUDDHIST ART</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 3/141</p><p>Sakra in Early Budd.hist Art</p><p>ByLeona Anderson, B Ed. B.A.</p><p>A Thesi.sSubmitted to the School of Graduate Studiesin Part ial Fulfillment of the Requirements</p><p>for the DegreeMaster of Arts</p><p>McMaster University</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 4/141</p><p>M STER OF ARTS 1978)Religious StudiesTITLE Sakra in Early Buddhist ArtAUTHOR Leona Anderson, B.Ed. B.A. Calgary)SUPERVISOR Dr. Phyllis GranoffNUM ER OF PAGES vii i 129</p><p>McMaster UniversityHamilton, Ontario</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 5/141</p><p>,-The fo11ol,in[;; ti1esi s tr.:lces the development of IncrajSal:rain Buddhist iconography in India up to the third century A.D. Thehange in repres(mtations of Indra/Sal:ra p a : I ; : ~ 1 1 e 1 s la rger e\ ol-</p><p>ution of popular Buddhism i t se l f from a religious system, in which thefigure of the his torical Buddha was predominant, into a devotionalcult centered on the figures of both the his torical Buddha and numerous</p><p>h o d c h i s a t ~ v a s The study thus highlights one aspect of th is shift inemphasis from cZlrly H I n a Y ~ r i a Buddhism to l,Iahayana Buddhism. Art formsin conjunction with relevant t e x ~ s provide the context in which Indraappears in early Buddhist art (around the f i r s t century B.C.E. andhis subsequent development in Hahayana ar t (early Gandrllara and NathuriD.</p><p>The f i r s t chapter reviews the character of rndra In non-Buddhistc o n t e ~ ~ t s : the Vedic and Epic t radit ions . E ~ v i d e n c e from these periods</p><p>....provides the context out of i ~ h i c h the Buddhist Sakra emerged. The Vedic,.Inera developed into the Epic Indra from ~ l h i c h the Buddhist S a t ~ r a seensto have evolved.</p><p>At the early Buddhist si tes of Sanchi and Bharhut Satcra er.Jergesas a devotee of the Buddha. e appears in iconogra?hy and relevanttexts , in a narrative context as one of several characters in the J; takata les . e is ident i f iable ei ther by his iconographic form (a royalfigure ~ l h o sometimes ~ e a r s a cylindrical crown specific to him and</p><p>~ l h o carries a va jra and/or ja r of a:w::ta), or by vir tue of the context</p><p>U s</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 6/141</p><p>in ~ h i h he appears.- - ~il.t Gandhara and l: athura ~ a 1 . ~ r a becomes a f igure of greater coro-plexi ty ~ v h o is often removed from any narrat ive context . S a l ~ r a andBrahr.ia at tend the Buddha in prototypical rlapresentat ions of the Buddhistt r iad (tbe Budcha and tHO bocldhisat tvas). This t r iad s ignals an impor-</p><p> t an t development iR the ar t and theology of Buddhism. I t i s ' indicat iveof the' c:evelopment of the 1tlorship of the Buddha as the m lin object ofdevotion accompanied by Sal,ra and Bral:una in ear ly Buddhism and byboc cihisattvas in the l a t e r t rad i t ion . I t i s the emergence of theGe l a t -te r f igures in th i s role ~ ~ h i c h represents the most s igni f icant changein popular Buddhism in India which V1ClS to be t ransmitted to the FarEast . The Buddha has become a t ranshis tor ica l f igure 'l-lorshipped in -dependent of a narrat ive c o n t e ~ ; t Hi.s at tendants though they s t i l ladore the Buddha are l i f t ed from a nar ra t ive context a t ta in ing thes ta tus of Buddhist dei t ies .</p><p>n addi t ion S a ~ : r a is intir.1ately r e la ted to the va j ra -bea re r vlhoemerges a t G a n d h ~ r a Tbe context in ~ 1 h i c h th i s l a t t e r f igure appears,his function, and his primary a t t r i bute, the va j ra indica te the natureof th i s relat ionshi;p. This iconographic form may be proto typica l of thel a t e r boddhisattva Vajrapani and cer ta in ly is tbe bas is of the Nio ~ . h oappear as f i e rce guardian f igures in iconography in Japan and China.</p><p>These t ~ J O deve:lopr:1ents r e f l ec t the emergence of Nahayana Buddhismand are indica t ive of the di rec t ions t l i l l t a ~ : e as t grOlvs and devel -opes in India ~ ; h e r e t arose and outside of Inelia, in China and Japan .</p><p>i i b</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 7/141</p><p>TABLE OF CONTENTS</p><p>PageLIST OF ILLUSTRAT]ONS . . . . . . . . . . . iv</p><p>ABBRE\TL1T IO}JS v i i</p><p>A C I r n O l r J L E D G E ~ T S v i i i</p><p>mTRODU T 0 G ,. 1</p><p>CHAPTER I INDRA THE HINDU TRADITION 0</p><p>CHAPTER I I SARRA T THE EARLY BUDDHIST MONUMENTSOF SANCR AND BHARHUT _ 22.CHAPTER I I I SAKRA IN THE ART OF G.ANDHARA AND MATHURA 54</p><p>cmr LUSION ................................. .................................... . ................................. 86</p><p>ILLUSTRATIONS . .. 97</p><p>FOOTIr 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 112.</p><p>BIBLIOGR A PtIY ...... II 01 I I 125</p><p>i i i</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 8/141</p><p>ILLUSTRATIONS</p><p>Figure Page1. Indra a t Bhaja (Ervin Baktay, Die Kunst Indiens ,</p><p>@udapest:. Terra-Verlag, 1963; pI. 67). 92. Vessantara Ja taka , s a . . ~ c h i (John Harshall and Alfred</p><p>Foucher, The Nonuments a t Sanchi, 2 vols. (Delhi:94LO 2: p l 29c) 97</p><p>3. B h i ~ a J ~ t a k a , Bharhut (Ananda Coomaraswamy, LaS ~ u l p t u r e de Bharhut, Annales du Husee Guimet,vol. 6 {paris: Vanoest, 1956J pl . XLV 176). .98</p><p>4. The vis i t of Sakra,_ Bharhut (Coomaraswamy, .Bharhut, pl. XXIV 63). . 985. .The vis i t of Sakra, -Sahchi. (Harshall and Fo:ucher,sanchI, 2: 3 5 b l ~ 986. Descent a t S r u L ~ i ~ a Bh;rhut Coomaraswamy,</p><p>Bharhut, pl XI,31). . . . 997. Descent a t S a i i . k i ~ a t Sartchi (Marshall .and Foucher,s ~ c h i , 2: pl.34c) . . . . . 998. Detalokas, Sanchi ( Ibid. pl . 49a). 9. Heads of Indra t Gandhara (Inghol t , Gandharan Artin Pakistan New York: Pantheon Books, 1957 ,</p><p>pls 331,332). . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 10010. Dipankara J;:taka, Gandhro-a S , ~ Gaulier , R. Jera-</p><p>Bezard, and Ivl Maillard, ~ h i s m in Afghanistanand Central Asia, 2 vols. Leiden: E.J. Br i l l ,1976 , 2: f ig ,22). . . 100</p><p>11. Birth of the Bodhisat tva, Gandhara (Asch,dn Lippe,The Freer Indian Sculptures, Orienta l Studies ,No. 8 \t ashington: Smithsonian In s t i t u t e , 197Ql,f ig . 8). 101</p><p>12. Bir th of the Bodhisat tva, Gandhara (Lippe, f ig . 9). 101</p><p>iv</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 9/141</p><p>vFigure Pa.ge13.</p><p>14.</p><p>15.</p><p>Bath of the Bodhisattva, Gandhara (Madeleine Hallada, ~The G a n d h a r ~ Style [tondon: Thames and Hudson, 1968J,p l 87) 102</p><p>Bath of the B0dhisattva, Gandhara (Hans Ackermann,Narrative Stone Reliefs from Gandhara in the Victoriaand Albert Museums ii-J. London, vol. XVII Wome: rsNeo,1975], p l Vii, bJ. o 02.</p><p>The vis i t of "Sakra, Gandhara, (Albert Griinwede1, BuddhistArt in India, trans. A ~ C . Gibson, second ed. ~ o n d o n :Sis i l Gupta,1965], pl . 94), 1q</p><p>16. The visi t of "S'aYJa, Gandhara (Ingho1t, p l 128). 10317. The visi t of Sakra, Gandhara (Ingho1t, pI 129) 104</p><p>1 8 ~ The Buddha and V a j r a p ~ i Gandhara (Ingholt, p l v 3) . 1(419. Departure of the Bodhisattva, Gandhara (Ackermann,pl . l 1;l),. ' ..... I 11 ........ 10520. First Meeting with Brahman, Gandhara (GC'Jl.dharanSculptures from Pakistan, Introduction by B. Rowland</p><p>~ e w York: The Asia Society Inc. , 1960) p 4). u 10521. Offering of Grass, Gandhara (Rowland, Gandharan</p><p>Sculptures, p 24). o 8 o # lo622. Buddha s Firs t Sermon, Gandhara (Lippe, p l ~ 11;.). 10623.. Buddha preaches to god in Trayastrimeia heaven,Gandhara (Ingho1t, p l 104). 10724. Parinirvana, Gandhara (Ackermann, pl. XLI), 10725. Parinirvana, Gandhara (Lippe, pI 16). 10826. Buddha and female worshippers, Gandhara (Ingholt,</p><p>p l 189) . c827. The Story of the Niligir i Elephant, Gandhara(Ackermann, pl. XXIX a), 10928. Descent a t Sanklsa Gandhara (Ackermann, pl. G13). 109</p><p>BUddha flanked y Sakra and Brahma, GandharaIngholt, p l 243). 110</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 10/141</p><p>v i</p><p>Figure Page30. Reliquary of Kanishka, Gandhara Ingholt, pl 494 11031. Bimaran Relic Casket, Gandhara Ingho1t, pl. 1). 11132. Preaching Buddha on Lotus Throne, Gandhfu-a Ingho1tpl 253}</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 11/141</p><p> BBREVI TIONS</p><p>NG nguttara NikayaBe BuddhacaritaV HarivathsaV alitavistara</p><p>HBh MahabharataMV MahavastuR RimayanaRV Rg VedaS Sanyutta NikazaSB a t a ~ a t h a Brahmana</p><p>v</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 12/141</p><p>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS</p><p>I thank Dr. Phyllis Granoff for her invaluable assistance asa resource person her guidance and for her personal concern for thesuccessful completion of th is thesis ; Dr. David Kinsley and Dr. GrahamMacQueen for their helpful suggestions. Thanks to Marg Moore for herthorough typing and Charles Wing for his photographic work Specialthanks to my mother for long years of moral and financial support.Primarily however I would l ike to tha clc my husband Jack Andersonfor whom my heart beats only for his patient assistance and p e r s e r v e r n c ~during the writing of this thesis .</p><p>v</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 13/141</p><p>llJTRODUCTION</p><p>t is the intention of this paper to examine the visualaspects of 'Sakra tn the Buddhist religious tradition and the changesthat occur in his depiction in Buddhist r t a.s i t develops </p><p>;/The figure of 0akra occurs in reliefs on early Buddhistmonuments. t SanchI and Bharhut as well as in the lat.er r t ofGandhara and Mathura. The subjects of the reliefs in which akraappears most often can be established by reference to correspondingtextual accounts. Hence any examination of iconographic representa</p><p>. tions of Sakra in Buddhist r t requires an examination of certainBuddhist texts. The number of texts which correlate with r t is t icrepresentations in this period, ho rever, is precisely limited innumber. Thus, to determine the character and the role of 'Sakra aE heappears in Buddhist r t one need only examine a selection of the va.f.'tcorpus of early Buddhist l i terature.</p><p>In addition to the appearance of akra in Buddhist iconographyand texts ~ k r is intimately conneeted ldth Incra, a well knO lilfigure in pan-Indian mythology. Buddhism arose and developed incontact with popular Hinduism. Indra was incorporated early into theBuddhist tradition and was changed significantly, but not to theextent that he was not clearly recognizable to l l Indian devotees.Hence, in order ful ly to describe the Buddhist ~ k r his relation-ship to the Vedic and Epic Indra must certainly be explore(l. TheEpic descriptions of Indra undoubtedly influencec the subsequent</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 14/141</p><p>representations of the Buddhist S ~ k r a . The nature of the Epic Incramust be determined in l ight of the texts of this perioe for fewrepresentations sUJ nrive he earliest ffinCiu representation of Inc1raare contemporary with the Buddhist monu na:ents ir Saffchl/Bharhut andappear on coins or Indo-Greek rulers. The f i r s t chapter irill t reatthe Vedic and Epic Indra in an attempt to discern the extent to Fhichtextual descriptions of this figure can be correlated with the earlyBuddhist descriptions and iconographic representations of 'Sakra.</p><p>The f i r s t Buddhist representations of ~ a k r a are round on tbestupes at Sanchi and Bharhut f i r s t century B.C.E ). He appears inthe context of the ..Tataka ta les ano the scenes from the l i fe of theBuddha. Indeed the reliefs a t these early Buddhist monuments pri-marily represent J2:taka tales anc scenes from the l i f e of the Buddha.The presence of the Buddha is the central focus of these iconographicrepresentations and his presence is indicates a t this s.tage symbolica l ly rather than by depiction in human form. The task of identir ication of scenes represented is accomplished by rererence to characterizing attributes such as symbols, by references to the texts i.rhichcorrespond to the rel iefs, anc by rererence to various ic'entif'yinginscriptions round at Bharhut which may be convenientlyapplied to similar scenes a t Sanchi and Bodh Gaya.</p><p>The appeal of the iconography at Sa1ichI and Bharhut seems tohave been widespread rather than limiter' to Buddhist monks and nuns:not only vlere both Sanch and Bharhut sites of sanghas (or commm:dties</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 15/141</p><p>3</p><p>of Buc.dhist monks), they T,'ere also sites of pilgrimage. Given thiscontext, the reliefs represented must have been popularist r t forms,accessible t and possibly fashiOneo n l ight of an audience Thich inturn reflected the increasing popularity of the B u d c h a ~ s message.Sakra's emergence in distinctive iconographic form in the reliefs tSanchi and Bharhut records the translation of what had previouslybeen a textual and r i tu l is t ic (Fymbolic) presence into a distinctlyBuddhist iconographic form, perhaps unr.er the influence of Buddhism'snew emphasis on devotion.</p><p>~ a k r a is represented at Sa:tchi ano Bharhut as a figure ::ubsid-iary to the Buddha. He sometime's appears with distinctive attributes,the vajra and/or the j r of a'm;ta, C ~ t h o u g h he is most often identif-iable only through the context. of a specific tale. He is representedin the reliefs as a figure amidst a c r o ~ . l d of others. H m , ~ e v e r , rel iefs</p><p>t SanchI and Bharhut d e p i c t i n g ~ a k r a s vis i t to the Buddha, tIndrasalaguha, in which gakra declared his devotion to the B u c ~ h a , aresingular evidence of his distinctly BUddhist character. His role atSanchi and Bharhut is t'\llofold: he attends the Buddha., a.nc he activelyserves the Buddha by assisting Buddhist devotees who fine themselvesin problematic situations. In both caf',es he sets an example forBuddhists and others to folIo..,, . As such he is an agent of Bucdhistmorality.</p><p>An examination of Sakra's role in both the early periodrepresented at Sanch and Bharhut and l ter periods r e p r e s e n t e ( ~ by</p></li><li><p>8/21/2019 Anderson Sakra in Early Buddhist Art</p><p> 16/141</p><p>Gandharan and Y...</p></li></ul>