and Concentration Camps, Europe, June 1944 – May 1945

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  • 60The Liberation of the Deathand Concentration Camps,

    Europe,June 1944 May 1945

    ANNIVERSARY

    TH

    Allied troops witness the horror of genocide

    SECOND WORLD WAR

    No.9

  • The liberation of the deathand concentration camps

    DEATH AND CONCENTRATION CAMPS, EUROPE

    Cover image: British soldier meets an Englishman, Louis Bonerguer, born in London. He was dropped by parachutein 1941 to work in the interior of Germany, but was caught and interned in Bergen-Belsen. 17 April 1945

    Bergen-Belsen is: Situated in the Lueneburg Heath

    region of Germany 65km northwest of HanoverAuschwitz-Birkenau Memorial (today) is: Situated in the suburbs of Oswiecim

    in the Malopolskie province of Poland 59.5km west of Krakw

    KEY FACTS

    IWM BU 4002

    Paris

    BerlinHanover

    Bergen-Belsen

    Dachau

    Auschwitz

    Warsaw

    GERMANYPOLAND

    FRANCE

    CZECHOSLOVAKIA

    AUSTRIA

    HUNGARY

    ITALY

    GERMANY

    POLAND

    London Warsaw

    Rome

    Berlin

    c

  • Foreword by theUnder Secretary of State for Defenceand Minister for Veterans, Ivor Caplin MP

    The act of commemoration serves not only as a way of respectingthose who fought and died, but also as a way of educating youngergenerations about the debt of gratitude we all owe those who enduredthe effects of war. The Second World War saw civilian struggle anddevastation on a scale without precedent in human history.

    This series of booklets sets out to give a detailed and lucid account ofsome of the key battles, operations and tragic episodes in the SecondWorld War. This ninth booklet, however, has a more poignant focus asit commemorates the liberation of the Nazis death and concentrationcamps which once stretched across the whole of Europe, from theChannel Islands to modern-day Ukraine. It recognises and respectsthose Service men and women and relief volunteers who went intothose camps to try and help the few who had survived. But mostof all, it commemorates the terrible suffering of the millions of peoplewho were victims of Nazi persecution and genocide.

    Some British prisoners of war (POWs), who were incarcerated in thesame camps, were forced to work in the factories of Auschwitz. Theysaw at first hand the terrible treatment of those forced into slave labourand did what they could to help them. On 27 January 2005, I willhave the honour of unveiling a plaque in memory of the 38 BritishPOWs who were killed at Auschwitz during air raids on the IG Farbenfactory. Later that day, I will join the British delegation attending theceremony to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the liberation ofAuschwitz. At the same time, thousands of our citizens, young andold, will be taking part in the United Kingdoms fifth National HolocaustMemorial Day and remembering all the victims of Nazi persecution.

    The Holocaust has provided us all with a terrible warning of what canhappen when ideologies of hate and prejudice take precedence overrespect for our fellow human beings.

    The systems that were constructed to carry it out are chilling and those whowere murdered, those who survived the ordeal, and those who carried theburden of liberating them must and will always be remembered.

    THE LIBERATION OF THE DEATH AND CONCENTRATION CAMPS | 1

  • Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Partys leadershipof Germany resulted in a number of tragicoutcomes, the most serious of which were:the destruction of a democratic state and theestablishment of a dictatorship; the instigationof the Second World War, leading to thedevastation of Europe, and many otherparts of the world; genocide and the ruthlesspersecution of peoples and groups for politicaland unscientific racial ideals, the most seriousaspect being the almost total destructionof 2000 years of European Jewish life.

    Hitlers obsession with race was indicated fromthe start of his political career and his violentanti-Semitism was developed even earlier. In his1925 book Mein Kampf (My Struggle), writtenwhile he was in prison for attempting a politicalputsch, Hitler set out his political ideology, andat its very heart was the belief in Germansuperiority over others and the need to achievethat by the use of force.

    The Nazis became obsessed with the ideaof racial superiority and that the most importantfactor in the make-up of a nation was the bloodof its people. In accordance with their racialtheories, the Nazis established an idealisedracial scale, whereby all groups in societycould be categorised according to their race,which is carried on through blood.

    The Germans and other Europeans wereplaced at the top of the racial scale. SomeEuropeans, such as those from Eastern Europe,were put in the middle of the scale, and wereto be used as slaves. Others, specifically theJews, the Roma and black people, were atthe bottom of the scale these groups wereto be destroyed. Also to be destroyed, all bythe harshest means possible, were any groupsthat threatened the Nazi ideal and way of life,which included some groups of Germans, andany political or moral opposition.

    In order to achieve their aims, the Nazis believedthat all of society must be ordered and that allactions considered necessary could be used.

    The result was the virtual destruction of Europeand the murder of millions of civilians. Thegenocide of the Jews, now known as theHolocaust, was one of the most disturbingand far-reaching elements of the Nazi ideal.The presence of anti-Semitism in Europe wasnot new in the 1930s, but the systematic,state-organised, industrial killing of the Jewsof Europe and the attempt to eradicate anysign of their presence is an act unprecedentedin history.

    In order to achieve their aims, the Nazis believed that allof society must be ordered and that all actions considerednecessary could be used.

    | THE LIBERATION OF THE DEATH AND CONCENTRATION CAMPS2

    The background to the death andconcentration camps

  • THE LIBERATION OF THE DEATH AND CONCENTRATION CAMPS | 3

    The Nazi ideology and the road to genocide

    At the centre of Hitlers racial ideology was hishatred of the Jews, who had lived in Germanyfor over 1500 years and who numbered lessthan 1 per cent of the total German population.Hitler, without any basis, accused the Jewsacross the world of inventing both capitalismand communism, and blame them for the FirstWorld War and the Russian Revolution.

    The Nazis immediately introduced a varietyof laws restricting the rights of German Jews.These restrictions included being barred fromcertain professions, having their movementsrestricted and being prevented from havingrelationships with non-Jews (including inprofessional circumstances). The most infamousof the laws were the Nuremberg Laws of 1935.

    The legal persecution developed over the yearsand many Jews tried without success to leaveGermany. On the night of 910 November1938, the Nazis carried out what is nowgenerally known as the Kristallnacht pogrom,the night of broken glass. It was a state-organised campaign of destruction againstthe Jews across the whole of Germany and

    Austria. 91 Jews were murdered and 30,000sent to concentration camps. Jewish propertywas destroyed and hundreds of synagogueswere burnt to the ground. After Hitlers invasionof the Sudetenland in 1938, and the CzechRepublic in 1939, and then his conquest ofwestern Poland later that year, over 3 millionmore Jews came under Nazi control.

    In Poland from 1939, Jews were persecuted andforced into ghettos. These places were intentionallyovercrowded, poorly sanitised and removedfrom the populations of non-Jews. Hundreds ofthousands died as a result of the conditions there.It was from the ghettos of Poland, and other areasof Eastern Europe, that Jews were transported byrail to the death and concentration camps.

    In Germany, Jews were segregated from theirneighbours and stripped of their belongingsand human rights. In 1940, Germany occupiedBelgium, the Netherlands, France, Denmarkand Norway. Jews in all these countries saveDenmark were also subject to severe restrictions.They were forced to wear the Star of David,and as their property and possessions were taken

    USHMM 86838

    Germans pass by the broken shop window of a Jewish-owned business, 9 November 1938

  • away they were taken to transit camps. From therethey too were taken to the camps in the east.

    Other groups who were persecuted from thestart because of the racial theory were theRoma and Sinti groups (Gypsies), who had firstarrived in Europe in the 13th century. Throughouttheir history in Europe, the Roma and Sinti hadbeen persecuted, with legal discrimination existingin many countries, including Germany. The Romaand Sinti were used by the Nazis for racialexperiments and were also designated as asocial.Thousands of Roma and Sinti were forcibly sterilisedand then later others were shot or sent to theconcentration and death camps.

    Another group persecuted on racial groundswas black people or those of mixed race.Although the black population of Europe wasrelatively small at the time, those who did livethere were treated harshly. In 1937, 500children of mixed race from the Alsace-Lorraineregion were taken away and forcibly sterilisedwithout their parents knowledge.

    Slavs were also designated as inferior andtheir lives were deemed to be dispensable.The Nazis intended to take control of theircountries and turn them into slave nations.

    The Nazis also believed that there wereGerman citizens who threatened Germanracial superiority. Consequently, in June 1933,the Nazis passed a law for the Prevention ofHereditary Diseased Offspring and 300,000men, women and children were forciblysterilised. When war started, Hitler orderedthe euthanasia programme. Children andadults who were in institutions and weredeemed to