ancient greece. what are the greek contributions to western & world civilization?

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  • Ancient Greece

  • What are the Greek contributions to Western & World Civilization?

  • Greek ContributionsDemocracyArchitectureSculptureHistory Herodotus is father of historyused anecdotes, legends, odd informationThucydides--avoid bias; focus on human, not divine, causes Philosophy DramaPoetryScienceScientific methoddirect study & observation of natureAristarchusearth rotates on its axis & rotates around the sunArchimedesapplied principles of physics to make practical inventionsEratosthenesshowed earth was round & accurately calculated its circumference

  • HerodotusThucydides

  • AristarchusArchimedes

  • Mathematics (Euclid, Pythagoras)Medicine (Hippocrates)Athletics (the Olympic Games) EuclidPythagoras

  • Early People of the Aegean

  • Geographys influence Rugged, hilly peninsula in southeastern Europe (isolation leading to city-state development)Limited fertile land; poor, sandy soilgrapes & olives as main crops (trade & commerce & colonization)Easy access to the seanumerous good bays & harbors (trade & commerce)Main products: olive oil, wine, marble

  • Minoan civilization (peak about 1750-1500 B.C.)Based on island of CreteNamed for legendary King MinosEstablished a trading empire which formed the basis for its success

  • Minoan civilization (peak about 1750-1500 B.C.)

  • Mycenaean civilization (peak between 1400-1200 B. C.)Successful sea-tradersRivalry with Troy at HellespontTrojan War (supposedly caused by the kidnapping of Helen)

  • Mycenaean Civilization

  • The Trojan War

  • Brad Pitt as Achilles

  • The Age of Homer (c. 750 B.C.)Provided an oral record which gives insight into life during this period (values of courage, honor, eloquence)IliadTrojan War & AchillesOdysseystruggle of Odysseus

  • The Age of Homer (c. 750 B.C.)

  • The Age of Homer (c. 750 B.C.)

  • The Age of Homer (c. 750 B.C.)

  • Forces Unifying the Greek WorldSame language, dialectsSame godsSame athletic gamesSame legendsPerceived ethnic superiorityFear of a common enemy (Persia)

  • Forces Unifying the Greek WorldSame gods

  • Forces Unifying the Greek WorldSame athletic games

  • Forces Unifying the Greek WorldSame legends

  • Forces Unifying the Greek WorldPerceived ethnic superiority

  • Forces Unifying the Greek WorldFear of a common enemy (Persia)

  • The Rise of Greek City-StatesThe Hellenic World

  • VocabularyPolisthe Greek city-state including the city & surrounding hinterland; typical population of 5-10 thousand who were closely knitPride in home cityJealous guarding of independenceRarely cooperated with other city-statesAcropolishigh point/hilltop in the city; site of the Greek temple

  • VocabularyMonarchygovernment in which king/queen exercises central powerAristocracyrule by the landholding eliteOligarchygovernment in which power lies in hands of a small, powerful elite (usually a business class) Democracygovernment by the people (excluding women, foreigners & slaves [25% of the Athenian population])

  • Sparta on the PelopennesusSpartans take over Messenians, transform them into non-citizens (helots) or state propertyTransformation into a military stateonly strong, healthy babies allowed to survivemales enter military school at age 7at age 20, they become field soldiersat age 30, they can assume government postsfor those who survive, retirement at age 60Brutal existence, hard exercise, coarse diet, rigid discipline

  • Sparta on the Pelopennesus

  • Athens and Greek Greatness

  • SolonAthenean Chief Magistrate

  • AthensReforms toward Age of DemocracySolonchief magistrate (594 B.C.)Cancelled farmers debtsOutlawed debt slavery (to bring an end to turmoil in Athens)Enlarged Council to 400 membersCitizenship opened to non-Athenian craftsmenEncouraged trade, e.g., export of wine & olive oil

  • Pisustratus

  • AthensReforms toward Age of DemocracyPisistratus (560 B.C.)banished some nobles & gave their lands to the poorgave loans to some farmersgave poorer citizens a greater voice in governmentencouraged trade & the artsCleisthenes (508 B. C.)introduced practice of ostracismenacted political re-districtingincreased Council to 500 members

  • Cleisthenes

  • Pericles & the Golden Age of Athens

  • Pericles & the Golden Age of Athens: Key ContributionsGreek democracy (model for the Western world)Public servicean honorable & necessary part of a citizens lifeCitizens free to live lives, come & go, speak minds openlyAwareness of beautyPublic debate before state actionAthens turned into the cultural center of Greece

  • Victory & Defeat in the Greek World: East Meets West in the Persian Wars480 B.C.Xerxes 1)Thermopylaevaliant Spartan defense of a mountain pass2)Fall of Athens3)Salamisnaval battle & final Persian defeat(excluding Plataea)Delian LeagueCreated to defend against further Persian intrusions; actually used to construct an Athenian Empire

  • Victory & Defeat in the Greek World: East Meets West in the Persian Wars

  • Victory & Defeat in the Greek World: East Meets West in the Persian WarsExpanding Persian Empire collides with Greek colonies along western rim of modern-day Turkey (Ionia)Aid sent to Ionia from Athens (which prompted Persian war on Greece)Punitive Persian expedition of Darius I490B. C.Battle of Marathon (2-to-1 odds against the Greeks) destroys myth of Persian invincibility

  • Victory & Defeat in the Greek World: East Meets West in the Persian Wars

  • Victory & Defeat in the Greek World: East Meets West in the Persian Wars

  • Victory & Defeat in the Greek World: East Meets West in the Persian Wars

  • Victory & Defeat in the Greek World: East Meets West in the Persian WarsThe Spartans defense at Thermopylae Pass480 B. C.

  • The Pelopennesian Wars (431-404 B. C.--27 years)

  • The Pelopennesian Wars (431-404 B. C.--27 years)Greek world spits into rival camps: Athens vs. Pelopennesian LeagueAthens falls in 404 B. C.Ended age of Athenian greatness; Greeks left weak & dividedcorruption & self-interest replace ideals like service to the city-state

  • The Glory that Was Greecethe Performing Arts

  • The Glory that Was Greecethe Vocabulary

    Rhetoricthe art of skillful speakingTragedyplays telling of human suffering & usually ending in disaster (Aschylus [father of the tragedy; cycle of murder, revenge, retribution], Sophocles [most important tragedian; individual motivation & human nature], Euripides [human life patters; the gods are ridiculous])Comedyhumorous plays that mocked or criticized society (Aristophanes)

  • The Glory that Was Greecethe Performing Arts

  • The Big ThreeSocratesencouraged the asking of questions and carefully analyzing answers in order to arrive at the truth or agreementPlato (focused on abstract ideas)Founder of the AcademyAuthor of The Republicpeople do work for which they are best suited (i.e., workers, soldiers, philosopher-kings)Aristotle (focused on practical application)happiness through moderation in all things, not extremes

  • The Big ThreeSocratesPlato Aristotle

  • The Big ThreePoliticsthere is no ideal systemStoicismfounded by ZenoTrue happiness attained by finding ones proper place in nature & accepting it; avoid desires and calmly accept what life bringsEpicurianismLive a life free of extremes; lessen pain & increase pleasure (vs. eat, drink, & be merry)

  • The Big ThreeZenoEpicurus

  • Alexander & the Hellenistic Age: The Rise of MacedonFather & Son

  • Alexander & the Hellenistic Age: The Rise of MacedonKing Philipambitious, ruthless & effectiveUnited MacedonBrought Greek city-states under his rule (formed alliances with some states & overthrew others)Philip assassinated in 336 B. C.

  • Alexander & the Hellenistic Age: The Rise of Macedon

  • Alexander the GreatTrained to lead by Aristotlerestless, confident & recklessConquest of Persia under Darius III (he was weak and his satraps were rebellious)Granicus, Issus, ArbellaDrive to the borders of India followed by mutiny of his troopsReturning home but died of a fever in Babylon

  • Alexander the Great

  • Alexander the GreatAlexanders program:Blend Greek & Persian (plus some Indian & Egyptian influence) culturescreate one world (Alexanders most durable achievement)Standard system of moneyOne language (Greek)One legal systemGrowth of cultural exchange & trade across the Hellenistic worldDeath of Alexander in 331 B.C.

  • The Hellenistic AgeHellenism vs. HellenisticDivision of Alexanders empire into several partseventually the Ptolemies and Selucids dominated


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