Ancient Greece “The Cradle of Western Civilization”

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  • Slide 1
  • Ancient Greece The Cradle of Western Civilization
  • Slide 2
  • The Ancient Mediterranean World
  • Slide 3
  • The Olive
  • Slide 4
  • Ancient Olive Trees
  • Slide 5
  • Trading Olive Oil
  • Slide 6
  • Greek City-States
  • Slide 7
  • The Trojan War
  • Slide 8
  • Homer, c. 800 B.C.
  • Slide 9
  • Homers epic poems The Iliadthe story of the Trojan War The Odysseythe voyage of Odysseus/Ulysses
  • Slide 10
  • Books of The Odyssey Book I: Athena Inspires the PrinceLucia Book 2: Telemachus Sets SailGrant Book 4: The King and Queen of SpartaStefania Book 5: OdysseusNymph and ShipwreckOscar Book 6: The Princess and the StrangerAdriana Book 9: In the One-Eyed Giants CaveJuan Andres Book 10: The Bewitching Queen of AeaeaTammy Book 11: The Kingdom of the DeadCarlos Book 12: The Cattle of the SunDaniel Book 13: Ithaca at LastJin Book 14: The Loyal SwineherdEugenia O. Book 16: Father and SonEugenia M. Book 17: Stranger at the GatesRicky Book 21: Odysseus Strings His BowClaudia B. Book 22: Slaughter in the HallGerardo Book 23: The Great Rooted BedClaudia P.
  • Slide 11
  • Cultural Roots of Greek Tragedy
  • Slide 12
  • The Worship of Dionysus
  • Slide 13
  • The Golden Age of Athens
  • Slide 14
  • AeschylusThe Oresteia
  • Slide 15
  • EuripidesMedea, The Bacchae
  • Slide 16
  • SophoclesThe Theban Plays (Oedipus Rex, Oedipus at Colonnus, Antigone)
  • Slide 17
  • The Back-Story of Antigone Story of Oedipus and his family: Cadmus, founder of the city of Thebes, was an ancestor of Oedipus (see genealogy). When Laius, one of the Theban kings, asked Apollo, through his oracle atDelphi, whether he and his wife Jocasta would have a son, the oracle replied that they would, but that this son was destined to kill his father. After the child was born, Laius pierced his ankles, bound them together with a leather thong, and gave the baby to a herdsman to expose. Pitying the infant, the herdsman instead gave the baby to another shepherd, who took the child back to his native city, Corinth, and gave him to the Polybus and Merope, the childless rulers of that city. The royal couple named him Oedipus (swollen foot) and raised him as their own son.genealogyApolloDelphi When Oedipus was grown, some companions taunted him, saying he was a bastard, not the legitimate son of Polybus. Troubled, Oedipus traveled to Delphi to consult the oracle, which prophesied that he was destined to kill his father and marry his mother. Odeipus left Delphi swearing never to return to Corinth, seeking in that way to avoid the awful fate predicted by the oracle. However, at a cross-roads where three roads came together, he met an entourage led by a haughty aristocrat who refused to make way for him. Enraged, he killed the older man and all his servants except for a lowly herdsman. Oedipus soon arrived at Thebes, which was suffering terribly from a Sphinx, a monstrous winged lion with the head of a woman who posed a riddle to all travelers and devoured them when they failed to solve it. When the Sphinx confronted Oedipus with her riddleWhat animal goes on four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening?he solved it with the answer Man, who crawls as a baby, walks on two legs in his prime, and walks with the aid of a stick when old. Defeated, the Sphinx cast herself from the cliff. Having saved the city, Oedipus was proclaimed king to replace the slain Laius and married the queen, Jocasta. When the Theban herdsman finally made his way back to the city, he saw that the man who had killed his master was now king, so he asked to be assigned to an outlying pasture far from the city.Sphinxdevoured themSphinx confronted Oedipus
  • Slide 18
  • More Back-Story After many prosperous years during which four children were born to Oedipus and Jocasta, a terrible plague ravaged the population of Thebes (the plague in Oedipus the King may allude to the devastating plague that swept through Athens in 429 BCE, killing many, including the statesman Pericles; some modern scientists claim that the symptoms described for this plague resemble those caused by the ebola virus). The Delphic oracle proclaimed that Thebes was harboring a pollution, the murderer of Laius, and the sickness would not leave until this pollution was cast from the land. Oedipus efforts to discover who this murderer was ultimately reveal that he was the land 's pollution; seeking to avoid his fate, he had unknowingly killed his real father, married his mother, and produced four children who were also his siblings. When the truth is revealed, Jocasta hangs herself and Oedipus takes her brooch and stabs his eyes until he can no longer see. A rare vase painting depicts masked actors enacting the scene when the Herdsman discloses the truth to Oedipus as Jocasta silently listens.rare vase painting Oedipus two daughters, Antigone and Ismene, accompanied him into exile, while his two sons, Eteocles and Polyneices remained in Thebes, where Jocasta's brother Creon was ruling as regent. When the boys were grown, they agreed to rule Thebes alternately. Eteocles ruled first, but when his year was up he refused to relinquish the throne to Polyneices. Polyneices, who had married the daughter of the king of Argos, led the Argives and six other cities in an assault on Thebes (The Seven Against Thebes). Thebes drove off the attackers, but in the course of the battle the two brothers killed each other. Their uncle Creon assumed the throne and decreed that Eteocles was to be buried with honors but his brother Polyneices was to be left unburied, to rot in the sun and be eaten by scavengers. Antigone disobeyed the edict, was caught in the act of attempting to bury her brother, and was sentenced to die by being walled up in a cave. Combining bridal and funeral imagery in a way that would have been familiar to the ancient Greeks, Antigone was described as marrying death itself: My husband is to be the Lord of Death. When her fianc Haemon, son of Creon, attempted to free her, he discovered that she had hanged herself; cursing his father, he stabbed himself. Meanwhile Teiresias warned Creon that the gods were extremely angry that he had disturbed the cosmic order, leaving a corpse unburied but burying a living person. The seer's warnings were so dire that Creon was compelled to bury Polyneices, but while he was on his way to release Antigone, he learned that both she and his son were dead, and that his wife Eurydice had also committed suicide. Utterly devastated by the catastrophe that he has unwittingly brought on himself, Creon, the man who attempted to reverse the worlds of the living and the dead, described himself as no more a live man than one dead.
  • Slide 19
  • Aristotles Unities The classical unities, Aristotelian unities or three unities are rules for drama derived from a passage in Aristotle's Poetics. The unity of action: a play should have one main action that it follows, with no or few subplots. The unity of place: a play should cover a single physical space and should not attempt to compress geography, nor should the stage represent more than one place. The unity of time: the action in a play should take place over no more than 24 hours.
  • Slide 20
  • Class Reading Bring sheets or other props to bring life to our class dramatization of Antigone.

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