ancient greece origins of western civilization. ancient greece time line bronze age (3000-1150) c....

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  • Ancient Greece Origins of Western Civilization
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  • Ancient Greece Time Line BRONZE AGE (3000-1150) c. 1650-1200 Mycenaean Civilization c. 1250-1220 The Trojan War c. 1200-1150 Collapse of Mycenaean Civilization DARK AGE (1100-850) c. 1050-950 Greek colonization of Asia Minor (western coast of Turkey) c. 900 Beginning of the rise of the polis (city-state) ARCHAIC PERIOD (800-490) c. 800-700 Rise of the aristocracies 776 Olympic Games established c. 750 Greek colonization of Southern Italy and Sicily begins c. 720 Homer, Iliad c. 700 Homer, Odyssey ; Hesiod, Theogony and Works and Days c. 680 Archilochus (lyric poet) c. 650 Greek colonization around the Black Sea begins 621 Dracos code of law in Athens c. 600 Sappho (lyric poet); Thales (philosopher) 594-593 Archonship of Solon in Athens 545-510 Tyranny of the Peisistratids in Athens 533 Thespis wins first tragedy competition at Athens 508 Cleisthenes reforms the Athenian Constitution
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  • CLASSICAL PERIOD (490-323) 490-479 Persian War 458 Aeschylus, Oresteia 461-429 Pericles dominant in Athenian politics; the Age pf Pericles c. 450-420 Herodotus composes his Histories of the Persian War. 447 Parthenon begun in Athens 441 Sophocles, Antigone 431-404 Peloponnesian War (Athens and allies vs. Sparta and allies) 429 Pericles dies 429? Sophocles, Oedipus the King c. 424-400 Thucydides writes the History of the Peloponnesian War 411 Aristophanes, Lysistrata 404 Athens loses Peloponnesian War to Sparta 399 Trial and death of Socrates c. 399-347 Plato writes his philosophical dialogues 335-323 Aristotle writes his philosophical treatises
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  • Ancient Greece
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  • Geography of Greece Peninsula as well as a chain of islands Very limited farm land Only about 20% of the land was arable Bodies of water include Mediterranean Sea, Aegean Sea
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  • Early History Minoans-lived on the island of Crete around 2000 BC Mycenaean Civilization develops around 2000 BC on the mainland of Greece The city of Mycenae was fortified They were ruled by kings from 1600-1200 BC
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  • End of the Minoans and Mycenae Warfare caused the end of the two civilizations The Dark Age followed 1200-700BC Stopped making bronze but discovered iron Period of anarchy and disorder emerged Trojan War-war between Greece and Troy
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  • Homer Author of the Iliad and the Odyssey Blind Poet-epic poem Describes the Trojan War and reflects the culture and beliefs of the period Two of the most important poems ever written
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  • Types of Government in Greece Aristocracy- Government ruled by land- owners. Oligarchy-Government by which a small group of un-elected leaders rule Democracy-Government where the citizens make the laws. Direct and Indirect democracies can exist Monarchy- ruled by a king Tyranny- Government under the control of one man a Tyrant who convinces people to support him in an overthrow of the government. They often gave away money or land to the common people to gain their support over the wealthy class
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  • The Emergence of City-States Athens and Sparta
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  • Sparta The Military State Helots- Slaves of the Spartans who rebelled against them. It took 30 years for the Spartans to put down the rebellion. This caused them to create a state completely dedicated to security. Government- Two kings elected every 9 years and a council of elders (28 men over the age of 60)and an assembly of Spartan citizens over the age of 30 who would advise the king. Real power was held by the 5 Ephors which made Sparta an oligarchy. Spartans believed that people existed to support the state not the other way around.
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  • Spartan Military At the age of seven boys taken from families to military training camps At age twelve they began training for combat they lived very simple lives marching all day wearing no shoes,sleeping on hard benches and eating black porridge. Spartan girls also lived hearty lives learning to fight and defend themselves. They managed the estate while their husbands were at the polis. They had no right to vote but had many more rights than in any other Greek city-states. Spartans had very few personal freedoms they valued strength, duty, and discipline
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  • Spartan Phalanx
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  • Athens Birthplace of Democracy Draco- Instituted a harsh system of laws that included debt slavery (draconian) Solon: reformed Athenian law, Outlawed debt slavery, created more fairness in government, gave more rights to commoners. Pisistratus- took land from the wealthy and gave it to the poor. Many works projects he instituted gave jobs to the poor as well as giving loans to the poor. Diminished aristocracy Democracy: Cleisthenes creates a democracy where common people have a voice in making all the laws of Athens
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  • Democratic and Yet not Freedom of Speech, and equality before the law as well as trial by jury. Male Citizens over 18 directly vote on all the laws. But they owned slaves, women had no voice and neither did foreigners.
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  • Unifying Forces They honored the same ancient heroes. They participated in common festivals. They prayed to the same gods. They shared the Greek language. They felt superior to non-Greeks, whom they called barbaroi, people who did not speak Greek. Local ties, independent spirit, and economic rivalries led to fighting among the Greek city-states. Despite these divisions, the Greeks shared a common culture. 2
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  • Persian Wars-Causes Persia builds huge empire that included some Greek colonies like Ionia Ionia rebels and is aided and encouraged by Athens It takes Persia 5 years to put down the rebellion. Darius king of Persia sets out to teach Athens a lesson for inciting the Ionians
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  • Persian War Battles Battle of Marathon-Persians out number Athenians 2-1 but the Athenians using the Greek phalanx out maneuver their opponents and defeat the much larger army 10 years later Xerxes son of Darius invades with much larger force Battle of Thermopylae- 300 Spartans hold off thousands Persians for days while Athens builds up a force. Battle of Salamis: Naval battle where Athens rams holes into the ships of the Persians sinking 1/3 of the Persian fleet. Ending the War.
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  • Results of the Persian War Greece enters a Golden Age unthreatened by a foreign invader Advancements in science and architecture and philosophy Greece become a dominant world power Athenian Democracy flourishes Persia declines as a world power
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  • The Age of Pericles Periclean Athens was a direct democracy. In this form of government, large numbers of citizens take part in the day-to-day affairs of government. This meant that Athenian men participated in the assembly and served on juries. Pericles hired architects and sculptors to rebuild the Acropolis, which the Persians had destroyed. Pericles turned Athens into the cultural center of Greece. He did this with the help of an educated, foreign-born woman named Aspasia. After the Persian Wars, Athens enjoyed a golden age under Pericles. 3
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  • The Age of Pericles Golden Age- Marked my technological and scientific advancements as well as a time of flourishing education and relative peace and prosperity Architecture and Art: Parthenon, pillars, frieze( statues depicting Greek gods and heroes), Pottery depicting every day Greek life Drama: Tragedies, Promethus Bound,Orestia, Oedepus, Medea and Comedies by Aristophanes such as Lysisrata and The Birds
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  • Science and Math Pythagoras- Theorem explaining relationships of right triangles and the origins of trigonometry. Greek astronomers determined the circumference of the earth and the distance from earth to moon and other planets. Democritus- theory of atoms Hypocrites- Father of medicine and the Hippocratic oath
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  • Philosophy Means love of wisdom Socrates-Socratic Method, stressed the pursuit of goodness. Question everything. This led to his eventual execution Plato-Student of Socrates, Established the Academy, He also questioned things and wrote a book called the Republic which defended aristocracy over democracy ruled by philosopher kings. Aristotle-Student of Plato who invented logic, biology,zoology,he a mathematician, a philosopher, and astronomer. He was also the personal tutor of Alexander the Great. Perhaps the smartest man who ever lived
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  • The Masters SOCRATES PLATO ARISTOTLE Developed Socratic method, whereby a series of questions are posed in order to challenge implications of answers Emphasized importance of reason Believed the ideal state should regulate every aspect of citizens lives to provide for their best interest Favored rule by single strong and virtuous leader Taught that good conduct meant pursuing moderation
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  • The Three Goals of Pericles
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  • Goal 1 To make Athens a stronger Democracy He increased the number of public officials and increased the pay given to them and had leaders chosen by lot. He introduced direct democracy where all male citizens could vote in the assembly on all the laws as well as debate them and put forth protests and grievances
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