Ancient Greece: History Chapter 5. Early Greeks The Minoans The Minoans –Lived on the island of Crete –Major polis: Knossos –Sailors and traders –Advanced

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  • Ancient Greece: HistoryChapter 5

  • Early GreeksThe MinoansLived on the island of CreteMajor polis: KnossosSailors and tradersAdvanced civilizationPlumbingarts

  • Early GreeksMinoan civilization declined. Why?Natural disastersEarthquakes, tidal wavesVolcanic eruption on Thera- changed weather and destroyed cropsConquered by the Mycenaeans

  • Early GreeksMycenaeansWarlikeBuilt a fortress at Mycenae (my-see-nee)Constant warfare destroyed Mycenaean civilization

  • Other PolisesSpartaWarlike Conquered nearby peoples; these became slaves called helotsHelots were farmers and servantsGave Spartans time to devote to military trainingSpartans emphasized physical fitness and good health

  • SpartaBoys trained for warfare; girls trained to be strong mothersAt age 20 young men became hoplites, or foot soldiers

  • AthensCenter of culture and learningBirthplace of democracyRival of Sparta

  • Athenian DemocracyDemocracy means rule by the peopleAthenian rulersDraco wrote laws that punished lawbreakers harshlyGives us the word DraconianSolon gave all Athenian men rights to sit on juries and participate in governing assemblies; only wealthy men could hold officeCleisthenes reformed Athens govtDivided Athens into 10 tribes; each tribe elected 50 men to serve on a Council of 500 who made laws

  • Athenian DemocracyWho could participate in Athenian democracy?Free men born in Athens who had finished military training 10 % of populationNo women, children, immigrantsIn the assembly, all members voted directly direct democracy

  • Other Greek PolisesThebesCorinthThessalonikiByzantiumMiletusEphesusSardis

  • Persian Wars400s B.C. Persian Empire controls much of Western Asia

  • Persian Wars (490 B.C.)Persian Empire controlled some Greek city-states, who had rebelledAthens and other polises gave aid to Greek rebels, but Persia wonPersian king, Darius the Great, wanted to punish Athens for supporting the rebellion- he brought an army to invade Greece

  • Persian Wars (490 B.C.)Persians attacked at Marathon, near AthensAthens won the battleLegend of the Marathon runner- a soldier ran 26 miles from Marathon to Athens to announce the Greek victoryBasis for todays marathon racesBattle of Marathon showed that the mighty Persian army could be defeated

  • Persian Wars (479 B.C.)Darius son, Xerxes, wanted to finish what his father startedAthens called for help from other Greek city-states; Sparta came to their aid

  • Persian Wars (479 B.C.)Battle of ThermopylaeGreeks met the Persians at Thermopylae to give Athens time to evacuate and prepare defenses300 Spartans, 900 helots, 1200 other Greeks fought to the death against 200,000 PersiansThermopylae a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds

  • Persian Wars (479 B.C)The Athenians later defeated Persians in naval battle at Salamis and land battle at PlataeaThe first time Greeks had stopped fighting and worked together to defend each otherPersians never attacked Greece again

  • Peloponnesian WarAfter Persian Wars, Athens and Sparta most powerful city-states in GreeceAthens entered a Golden Age of arts and cultureGolden Age: a period of peace, prosperity, and great achievement

  • Peloponnesian WarGolden Age of AthensAthens had to rebuild after the war with PersiaNew temples built on the AcropolisParthenon- temple to AthenaBeautiful sculptures and monumentsRebuilding led by Pericles, one of Greeces greatest statesmen

  • Peloponnesian WarThe Delian LeagueGreek city-states formed a defensive alliance against Persia called the Delian LeagueAthens was most powerful and important memberAthens controlled the League and would not allow other members to leave

  • Peloponnesian WarSparta led the rebellion against AthensSparta led its own alliance, the Peloponnesian Leaguewar broke out in 431 B.C.

  • Peloponnesian WarFor many years, neither side could winAthens had a strong navySparta had a strong armyPlague in Athens led to a truce in 421 B.C.415 B.C.- Athens attacked a Spartan allySparta destroyed Athenian navyAthens surrenders in 404 B.C.

  • Peloponnesian War

  • End of Greeces Golden AgeSparta couldnt maintain control of GreeceCity-states quarreled and foughtEventually all of Greece was conquered by Macedonia