Ancient Greece Cornerstone of Western Civilization
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Ancient GreeceCornerstone of Western Civilization
CornerstoneFirst well-organized European civilizationThe West looks back to Greece as its beginning
Foundations of European:Government, History, Science, Math, Medicine, Philosophy and Arts
Axial AgeEastern Mediterranean becomes a hybrid societyMixture of old & newTraders carry ideasCoins, political ideas, alphabetSimilar to Zhou dynasty and developments in South Asia
Legacies of the Greco-Roman WorldRationalismPhilosophy, science and historyHumanismTruth, art and athleticsInherent OrderNatural law, physics and taxonomyPoliticsGovernment, civic responsibility and democracy
Government and LawAthens: the first democracyDemos (the people) Cratien (rule)Later copied by the Roman Republic then dropped by the Roman Empire and lostRe-appeared about 1500 years later, still spreading
First trial by jury (400 members)
The Trial of Socrates
PhilosophyPhilo (lover of) Sophia (wisdom)Seek knowledge, organized system of thoughtThe Big 3: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Early Philosophy (600-470 BCE)Is the world permanent or changing?Democritus all physical things are formed by combinations of tiny particles called atoms.Sophists Man is the measure of all thingsThere is no common objective reality that all persons grasp the same way.Truth is relative to each individualPleasure is the highest good - hedonism
Socratic Philosophers (470-322 BCE) Truth and reality are absoluteSocrates Truth is in the mind but hidden by false impressionsYou can only know the truth through inquiryStressed importance of honor & integrity
The unexamined life is not worth living
PlatoDualism the world is imperfect, changeable and different in appearance to every individual; the world we perceive is an illusion, the real world is a world of ideal forms.Philosophers will discover the perfect, eternal, real worldRepublic society should be governed by Philosopher kingsThere is only one real tree.
AristotleReality = form and matterLogic - key to truth and happiness, by logic people can gain knowledgeGolden Mean perfection, virtuous and excellentbetween extremes, when neither adding something nor taking something away will make improvements.Government rule by the middle class, devoted to general welfare of the people.Use senses to classify science (taxonomy)Develops inductive thinking- The PoliticsWants to strengthen urban communities
OK, everyone with an exoskeleton, over there.
The most difficult thing in life is to know yourselfMen create the gods in their own imageNothing exists except atoms and empty space; everything else is opinion ThalesDemocritusXenophanes
HistoryHerodotus, the Father of HistoryFirst to separate fact and legend, use witnesses
Science and MathAstronomy- first heliocentric theory (earth around sun)Geometry- remember Pythagoras!Medicine- Hippocrates, Father of Medicine, separated superstition and magic from treatment
The ArtsLiterature: Homers Iliad and Odyssey were THE textbooks of Europe for 2000 yearsGreek mythology stories still popular today
The ArtsGreek Theater: from Athens to Shakespeare to Broadway
The ArtsSculpture Set the ideal body type, realistic portrayal, action in marble
ArchitectureGreek design is known for use of columns and the Golden Mean or Golden Proportion, 1 : 1.618...
Golden Mean Used in Architecture
Golden Mean in Art
There is no Greece in Ancient GreeceBeing Greek = you spoke Greek and believed in the Greek gods, no matter where you livedEach of the Greek cities were self-controlledAthens was a democracySparta was an oligarchyCorinth was a monarchyFought each other, but allied to fight non-GreekAs in: Vs Troy in the Iliad, Vs Persia 300
Was there a Greek Empire?Greek city-states launched colonies, but never really made an empireWhy mess around with Barbarians?
Then Came Alexander
Alexander the Who?Proper Greeks laughed at the MacedoniansTalked with funny accentsNot allowed to be in OlympicsConsidered barbarians
Until King Philip II shut them right up
Like Father, Like SonPrince Alexander tutored by Aristotle
Became king at age 20
Aint no stoppin us now! **For 13 years
Alexanders conquestleads to the Hellenistic AgeHellenistic -derived from Hlln Greek word for Greek
Now Thats Hellenizing!Alexanders conquest Hellenized the landSpread Greek language, art, knowledge and thinking
After his sudden death (with no son) his Empire passed to his generalsIn 5 piecesAfter 40 years of civil war
Influence of Hellenistic CultureHellenistic is not one single culture Political expansion leads to cultural diffusionLays foundation for state systems/leads to more warfareLeads to stability in tradingGrowth of Silk RoadUse of money & common language
Influence of Hellenistic CultureLanguageReplaced dialects with a common Greekeasier communication between Egyptians, Syrians, JudeansReligionLed to worship of Greek godsNot accepted universallyex. Jews in Judea rebelled vs. Hellenistic culture(Maccabean Revolt Diaspora)JudaismHellenismOne God Gods, Goddesses and Who Knows What!Man in the Image of God Gods in the Image of Man
Influence of Hellenistic CultureArtsSculpture more realisticCosmopolitan CitiesAlexandria becomes the model huge libraryInhabitants become cosmopolitan Not just citizens of a particular polisBecomes ultimately the culture of elites base of later Roman culturePenetrated into sub Saharan Africa - Meroe
Hellenistic Philosophers (340 BCE)Philosophy becomes accessible to a wider audience Affluent members of the population, including women, begin to study philosophyfocuses on the problem of human happiness What is the meaning of this?
Epicureansknowledge originates and stops in the senses pleasure is the sole good and that pain is the sole evil man must moderate himself in reference to these desires
Cake is yummy!But, eating an entire cake would make you sick. Thats evil.
Stoics - ZenoNamed after Stoa Poikil in Athens where Zeno taughtThe universe functions according to a plan of goodness Natural LawNature is understood through reasonAll persons are inherently equal as all share a spark of reasonYou can live in harmony with nature but need to control your passions (Get over it!)
Cynics preached a return to nature and a rejection of conventional mores as the key to man's happiness Did not consider themselves members of any nationsDiogenes made his home in thestreets of Athens, made a virtueof extreme poverty.Lived in a large tub, walked the streets carrying a lamp in the daytime claiming to be looking for an honest man.
Skeptics by doubting everything, believed that they could attain a state of perfect tranquilityBut did they even believe that?
Hellenistic ScienceMathHipparchus - trigonometric tables and gave methods for solving spherical triangles.Pythagoras - The Pythagorean Theorem Euclid wrote about triangles and circles, irrational numbers, and three-dimensional geometry.
Hellenistic SciencePhysicsArchimedes lever and hydrostatic discoveriesAristotle's - "Physics" and "Metaphysics Not heavy, not heavy, not heavy.
Hellenistic ScienceAstronomy (applying logical thinking and geometry)Anaxagoras - cause of eclipsesAristarchus - the earth goes around the sunThales - the earth is round.
Hellenistic ScienceMedicineYou could learn to understand and treat diseases by using careful observation and logical thought.Hippocrates - dismissed the notion that Magic or spirits caused or cured disease.
Chant after me: Black bile, yellow bile, phlegm and blood.
Hellenistic ScienceCartography The earth is a sphereClaudius Ptolemy wrote Guide to Geography (Geographike hyphygesis)-remained an authorative reference on world geography until the Renaissance.
Discuss changes and continuities in intellectual development in Greek-influenced areas from 500 B.C.E. to 30 B.C.E.
******Deductive reasoning arrives at a specific conclusion based on generalizations. Inductive reasoning takes events and makes generalizations-For example, you have probably studied deductive geometry in mathematics; in it you start with a few principles and prove various propositions using those principles. If ...Then...But...Therefore...Inductive reasoning is essentially the opposite of deductive reasoning. It involves trying to create general principles by starting with many specific instances.-This is the kind of reasoning used if you have gradually built up an understanding of how something works.