ancient greece “birthplace of western civilization” sol wh1

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  • Ancient GreeceBirthplace of Western CivilizationSOL WH1.

  • Bell Activity 10/10/2013(2nd Block)Ancient Greece was located on which peninsula?What is the narrow passage of water that connects the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara?How is geography going to impact the history of the Greeks?Why did Phil Knight name his shoe company Nike?SOL: WHI.5Learning Targets: At the end of the day, you will be able to--Describe the impact of geography on the history of the Greeks-Compare and contrast Athens and Sparta

  • You Are Here!Greece!

  • Balkan PeninsulaPeloponnesusSpartaAthens

  • Geography of Balkan PeninsulaLocated on the Balkan and Peloponnesus Peninsula between the Mediterranean and Aegean SeaLand is very rocky; 80% of the island is covered by mountainsVery few rivers; most dry up in the summerMajor bodies of water used for trading: Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, Dardanelles

  • Impact of Geography on Greek SettlementsMountains hindered the formation of a national governmentGreeks formed independent city-states (Athens, Sparta, Marathon, etc.)The city-states (polis) were designed to promote civic and economic involvement.City-states were independent of each otherBecause of overpopulation, Greeks began to colonize new lands they could farm and spread their culture

  • Bell Activity 10/14/2013(2nd Block)What was the Greek term for city-state?What is the body of water between the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor?What was the main economic trade in Greece?

    SOL: WHI.5Learning Targets: At the end of the day, you will be able to--Compare and contrast Athens and Sparta-List Greek gods and goddesses-Explain how Greek mythology impacts the modern world*India/China/Persia Re-Test tomorrow!!

  • Sparta/Athens ComparisonSpartaVery militaristicIsolatedUsed 2 kings and a Council (oligarchy)Boys become soldiers at early age, a womans job was to produce good soldiersRigid social structureLittle use for new ideas or artsTravel forbiddenSuffered from rigid ideas

    AthensGovernment evolved into a democracyEducation was encouraged for malesValued the art of debate (rhetoric)Very involved in tradeArtisticNot as military minded as SpartaWomen had limited rights

  • Athens/Sparta AssignmentCreate an Acronym for each of the letters in the names of the city-states (Athens and Sparta).ASTPHAERNTSA

  • Essential KnowledgeThe expansion of Greek civilization through trade and colonization led to the spread of Hellenistic culture across the Mediterranean and Black seas

  • Religion of Greece was polytheistic and integral to culture, politics, and art of GreeceGreeks believed gods interacted with humans and were part of private lives

    Greek Mythology

  • Greek mythology developed as a collection of stories to explain that which otherwise could not be explained (natural phenomena), human qualities, and life events

    Greek MythologyGreek Myth Rap

  • Examples of how myths are used in modern society:Herculean Task- A very difficult task- Named after Greek hero Hercules Most constellations named after Greek characters Atlas- Collection of Maps (Named after man who held up the sky) Phrases such as Achilles Heel Midas TouchWhy Are Myths Important today?

  • Myths often carried a moral with themMany of Western civilizations symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from ancient Greek mythology.

    Greek Mythology

  • Greek Gods and GoddessesZeusking of the gods, ruled from Mt. Olympus

  • Greek Gods and GodessesHeraqueen of the gods, wife of Zeus

  • Greek Gods and GoddessesAthenagoddess of wisdom

  • Greek Gods and GoddessesAphroditegoddess of beauty and love

  • Greek Gods and GoddessesApollogod of music and sun

  • Greek Gods and GoddessesArtemis virgin goddess of the hunt and childbirth

  • Bell Activity 10/15/2013(2nd Block)Who was the King of the Gods on Greek mythology?What were the 2 main city-states in Greece?Which had a democratic government and promoted education?How do we use Greek Mythology in the modern world?

    SOL: WHI.5Learning Targets: At the end of the day, you will be able to--Compare and contrast Athens and Sparta-List Greek gods and goddesses-Explain how Greek mythology impacts the modern world*India/China/Persia Re-Test tomorrow!!

  • The Evolution of the Greek DemocracyI. Draco (620 B.C./B.C.E.)-Set up law code with very harsh penalties (Draconian Law)-Accused had right to trial and were innocent until proven guilty

    II. Solon (Chief Ruler in 504 B.C.)-Outlawed debt slavery-opened government offices to more people-Gave assembly more power

  • The Evolution of the Greek Democracy ContinuedIII. Pisistratus (Tyrant) 546 B.C.-Weakened aristocracy by giving loans to farmers and jobs to poor

    IV. Cleisthenes 507 B.C.-Set up Council of 500; members chosen by lot-Made Assembly a genuine legislature

    V. Pericles (Golden Age of Athens 460-429 B.C.)-Believed all male citizens should participate in government-Gave government employees a salary-Presided over a Direct Democracy in which all citizens took part in day-to-day decisions.

    Chronological order of Athenian GovernmentMonarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy, Tyranny, Democracy

  • Athens slowly grew to become a democratic city-stateAthens was a direct democracycitizens voted on each issue considered by the government

    Direct Democracy

  • Democracy in AthensPublic debates and hearings were held so citizens could express their viewsFree people were allowed to participate in debates BUT could not voteCitizens were expected to partake in debates and voting

  • City-states were called the polisMembers of the polis:Citizensfree adult maleshad political rights and responsibility of civic participation in government

    Social Structure and Citizenship

  • Free peoplewomen, foreigners, and young maleshad no political rights

    Slavesnon-citizenshad no political rights

    Social Structure and Citizenship

  • Social Structure and CitizenshipTo become a citizen, men served 10 years of military serviceAdult males became citizens and had a voice in government and protection from governmentParticipation in government was expected

  • Classical Athens developed the most democratic system of government the world had ever seen, although not everyone could participate in decision making. It became a foundation of modern democracies.

    Essential Understandings

  • Mostly occurring between the Persian and Peloponnesian WarsTime of peace and prosperity for AthensTime of cultural advancement and innovationsPericles, the ruler of Athens, extended democracy to most males and they had an equal voice

    Golden Age of Athens/Golden Age of Pericles

  • ArchitecturePericles rebuilt Athens from destruction that occurred during the Persian Wars

    This was the period in which Greece gave many gifts to the world

    An example of this is the Parthenon (Doric style of columns)

  • Architecture: ColumnsThe Greeks Developed Three types of ColumnsDoricIonicCorinthian

  • Greek Architecture: Modern ConnectionsCan you think of other buildings that use this style?

  • Sculptors:

    Phidias is commonly known as the greatest sculptor of the Ancient Greek world. His statue of Zeus at Olympus was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Greek sculptures were known for their realistic but Idealistic portrayals of the human body

  • Felt through logical thinking people could discover wisdom, truth, and laws of natureTaught by using Socratic MethodEducate and enlighten through asking questionsLeaders of Athens felt that he was a threatPhilosophers: Socrates

  • SocratesIn 399 BCE, he was accused of corrupting the young and plotting to overthrow the governmentHe was sentenced to death but declared himself innocentHe believed his teachings and carried out the death sentence by drinking hemlock (drink made from poisonous plant)

  • Student of Socrates and carried out Socrates workHe took Socrates teachings and organized them into a philosophical thoughtOpened a school in Athens called The Academy

    Philosophers: Plato

  • Philosophers: PlatoWrote The Republic in which he set forth his views of governmenthe felt the state was more important than the individualbelieved Philosopher Kings should ruleeducated people

  • Last great philosopher of Ancient GreeceStudent of PlatoOpened his own school in Athens and contributed to the field of logicTutor to Alexander the Great

    Philosophers: Aristotle

  • Herodotus Father of HistoryWrote about the Persian Wars 200 years after they occurredWrote in a first person style as though he was thereOften tended to exaggerate events and glorify AthensHistorians

  • ThucydidesParticipated in and wrote about the Peloponnesian WarsRegarded as being accurate Is considered a Primary Sourceeyewitness


  • Science and EngineeringArchimedesGreek inventorworked with optics, physics, and hydraulicsArchimedes Screwway of pumping water, used in boatsAlso credited with the principle of the lever

  • MedicineHippocratesFather of medicinebelieved that all diseases came from natural causes and not supernaturaldrew a code of ethics for doctorsHippocratic Oath

  • Poetry Homer- Blind Epic Poet of Ancient GreeceEpic poem- tells a story! Wrote the Iliad and The Odyssey which tell stories of the Trojan War and the adventures of Odysseus

  • EuclidFounder of GeometryPythagorasstudent of Euclid, extended the work of Euclidresponsible for Pythagorean theorem


  • Greeks were the first to write and


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