Ancient Greece “Birthplace of Western Civilization” SOL WH1.

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Ancient GreeceBirthplace of Western CivilizationSOL WH1.Bell Activity 10/10/2013(2nd Block)Ancient Greece was located on which peninsula?What is the narrow passage of water that connects the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara?How is geography going to impact the history of the Greeks?Why did Phil Knight name his shoe company Nike?SOL: WHI.5Learning Targets: At the end of the day, you will be able to--Describe the impact of geography on the history of the Greeks-Compare and contrast Athens and SpartaYou Are Here!Greece!Balkan PeninsulaPeloponnesusSpartaAthensGeography of Balkan PeninsulaLocated on the Balkan and Peloponnesus Peninsula between the Mediterranean and Aegean SeaLand is very rocky; 80% of the island is covered by mountainsVery few rivers; most dry up in the summerMajor bodies of water used for trading: Mediterranean Sea, Black Sea, DardanellesImpact of Geography on Greek SettlementsMountains hindered the formation of a national governmentGreeks formed independent city-states (Athens, Sparta, Marathon, etc.)The city-states (polis) were designed to promote civic and economic involvement.City-states were independent of each otherBecause of overpopulation, Greeks began to colonize new lands they could farm and spread their cultureBell Activity 10/14/2013(2nd Block)What was the Greek term for city-state?What is the body of water between the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor?What was the main economic trade in Greece?SOL: WHI.5Learning Targets: At the end of the day, you will be able to--Compare and contrast Athens and Sparta-List Greek gods and goddesses-Explain how Greek mythology impacts the modern world*India/China/Persia Re-Test tomorrow!!Sparta/Athens ComparisonSpartaVery militaristicIsolatedUsed 2 kings and a Council (oligarchy)Boys become soldiers at early age, a womans job was to produce good soldiersRigid social structureLittle use for new ideas or artsTravel forbiddenSuffered from rigid ideasAthensGovernment evolved into a democracyEducation was encouraged for malesValued the art of debate (rhetoric)Very involved in tradeArtisticNot as military minded as SpartaWomen had limited rightsAthens/Sparta AssignmentCreate an Acronym for each of the letters in the names of the city-states (Athens and Sparta).ASTPHAERNTSAEssential KnowledgeThe expansion of Greek civilization through trade and colonization led to the spread of Hellenistic culture across the Mediterranean and Black seasReligion of Greece was polytheistic and integral to culture, politics, and art of GreeceGreeks believed gods interacted with humans and were part of private livesGreek MythologyGreek mythology developed as a collection of stories to explain that which otherwise could not be explained (natural phenomena), human qualities, and life eventsGreek MythologyGreek Myth RapExamples of how myths are used in modern society:Herculean Task- A very difficult task- Named after Greek hero Hercules Most constellations named after Greek characters Atlas- Collection of Maps (Named after man who held up the sky) Phrases such as Achilles Heel Midas TouchWhy Are Myths Important today? Myths often carried a moral with themMany of Western civilizations symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from ancient Greek mythology.Greek MythologyGreek Gods and GoddessesZeusking of the gods, ruled from Mt. OlympusGreek Gods and GodessesHeraqueen of the gods, wife of ZeusGreek Gods and GoddessesAthenagoddess of wisdomGreek Gods and GoddessesAphroditegoddess of beauty and loveGreek Gods and GoddessesApollogod of music and sunGreek Gods and GoddessesArtemis virgin goddess of the hunt and childbirthBell Activity 10/15/2013(2nd Block)Who was the King of the Gods on Greek mythology?What were the 2 main city-states in Greece?Which had a democratic government and promoted education?How do we use Greek Mythology in the modern world?SOL: WHI.5Learning Targets: At the end of the day, you will be able to--Compare and contrast Athens and Sparta-List Greek gods and goddesses-Explain how Greek mythology impacts the modern world*India/China/Persia Re-Test tomorrow!!The Evolution of the Greek DemocracyI. Draco (620 B.C./B.C.E.)-Set up law code with very harsh penalties (Draconian Law)-Accused had right to trial and were innocent until proven guiltyII. Solon (Chief Ruler in 504 B.C.)-Outlawed debt slavery-opened government offices to more people-Gave assembly more powerThe Evolution of the Greek Democracy ContinuedIII. Pisistratus (Tyrant) 546 B.C.-Weakened aristocracy by giving loans to farmers and jobs to poorIV. Cleisthenes 507 B.C.-Set up Council of 500; members chosen by lot-Made Assembly a genuine legislatureV. Pericles (Golden Age of Athens 460-429 B.C.)-Believed all male citizens should participate in government-Gave government employees a salary-Presided over a Direct Democracy in which all citizens took part in day-to-day decisions.Chronological order of Athenian GovernmentMonarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy, Tyranny, DemocracyAthens slowly grew to become a democratic city-stateAthens was a direct democracycitizens voted on each issue considered by the governmentDirect DemocracyDemocracy in AthensPublic debates and hearings were held so citizens could express their viewsFree people were allowed to participate in debates BUT could not voteCitizens were expected to partake in debates and votingCity-states were called the polisMembers of the polis:Citizensfree adult maleshad political rights and responsibility of civic participation in governmentSocial Structure and CitizenshipFree peoplewomen, foreigners, and young maleshad no political rightsSlavesnon-citizenshad no political rightsSocial Structure and CitizenshipSocial Structure and CitizenshipTo become a citizen, men served 10 years of military serviceAdult males became citizens and had a voice in government and protection from governmentParticipation in government was expectedClassical Athens developed the most democratic system of government the world had ever seen, although not everyone could participate in decision making. It became a foundation of modern democracies.Essential UnderstandingsMostly occurring between the Persian and Peloponnesian WarsTime of peace and prosperity for AthensTime of cultural advancement and innovationsPericles, the ruler of Athens, extended democracy to most males and they had an equal voiceGolden Age of Athens/Golden Age of PericlesArchitecturePericles rebuilt Athens from destruction that occurred during the Persian WarsThis was the period in which Greece gave many gifts to the worldAn example of this is the Parthenon (Doric style of columns)Architecture: ColumnsThe Greeks Developed Three types of ColumnsDoricIonicCorinthianGreek Architecture: Modern ConnectionsCan you think of other buildings that use this style?Sculptors: Phidias is commonly known as the greatest sculptor of the Ancient Greek world. His statue of Zeus at Olympus was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Greek sculptures were known for their realistic but Idealistic portrayals of the human bodyFelt through logical thinking people could discover wisdom, truth, and laws of natureTaught by using Socratic MethodEducate and enlighten through asking questionsLeaders of Athens felt that he was a threatPhilosophers: SocratesSocratesIn 399 BCE, he was accused of corrupting the young and plotting to overthrow the governmentHe was sentenced to death but declared himself innocentHe believed his teachings and carried out the death sentence by drinking hemlock (drink made from poisonous plant)Student of Socrates and carried out Socrates workHe took Socrates teachings and organized them into a philosophical thoughtOpened a school in Athens called The AcademyPhilosophers: PlatoPhilosophers: PlatoWrote The Republic in which he set forth his views of governmenthe felt the state was more important than the individualbelieved Philosopher Kings should ruleeducated peopleLast great philosopher of Ancient GreeceStudent of PlatoOpened his own school in Athens and contributed to the field of logicTutor to Alexander the GreatPhilosophers: AristotleHerodotus Father of HistoryWrote about the Persian Wars 200 years after they occurredWrote in a first person style as though he was thereOften tended to exaggerate events and glorify AthensHistoriansThucydidesParticipated in and wrote about the Peloponnesian WarsRegarded as being accurate Is considered a Primary SourceeyewitnessHistoriansScience and EngineeringArchimedesGreek inventorworked with optics, physics, and hydraulicsArchimedes Screwway of pumping water, used in boatsAlso credited with the principle of the lever MedicineHippocratesFather of medicinebelieved that all diseases came from natural causes and not supernaturaldrew a code of ethics for doctorsHippocratic OathPoetry Homer- Blind Epic Poet of Ancient GreeceEpic poem- tells a story! Wrote the Iliad and The Odyssey which tell stories of the Trojan War and the adventures of Odysseus EuclidFounder of GeometryPythagorasstudent of Euclid, extended the work of Euclidresponsible for Pythagorean theoremMathematicsGreeks were the first to write and perform playsTragediesunhappy endings and human sufferingsComedieshumorous themeshappy endingsGreek DramaGreek DramaSophocleswrote tragedies, most famous is AntigoneAeschyluswrote over 80 playstragediesfought in the Persian WarThe culture of Greece that emerged during the Golden Age of Pericles became known as Hellenistic CultureGreek CultureFollowing the Peloponnesian Wars, Greece was left without unity a number of invaders threatened Greecethe most powerful were the MacedoniansRise of Macedonia and Alexander the GreatKing Philip II led his army to Greece and conquered northern Greecehe moved into southern Greece, but died before all of Greece was conqueredHis son, Alexander the Great, age 23, took over and conquered GreeceRise of Macedonia and Alexander the GreatAlexander adopted Hellenistic culture and spread it with him as his army conquered more landAlexanders army was the most powerful of its ageAlexanders empire went from Egypt to India and Greek culture went with it.Rise of Macedonia and Alexander the GreatAlexander the GreatHe died at age 33 under mysterious causesAfter his death, the empire was divided among his three top generalsWithout unity, Alexanders empire was eventually defeated by the RomansBlend of Greek and oriental elementsSpread of Hellenistic culture through tradeHellenistic Culture*******************************************

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