Ancient Greece and Western Civilization notes - Ancient Greece/Shared Documents/WHI.5... · Ancient…

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  • World History Voorhees 2011

    WHI Ancient Greece lesson World History; Voorhees

    Ancient Greece and Western Civilization notes

    Where Western Civilization began!

    Greek culture is part of Western Civilization today the concept of hero mythology Olympics Democracy =political system in which the people of a country rule through

    any form of government they choose to establish

    Development and expansion of Greece Mountainous rocky land

    trade and colonization individual city-states

    Economic and social development: Not a lot of farmable land Greek economy relied heavily on trade

    Export olive oil and wine Import wheat

    Colonization for resources Greek civilization expanded Hellenic culture spread Shift from bartering to money system

    Political development: Mountainous terrain

    Good for city-states individually strong- designed to promote civic and commercial life

    Bad for city states not unified with each other/ separate

    Colonization Overpopulation

    Greek mythology

    Based on polytheistic religion Explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events Symbols and images in Western literature, art, and architecture Zeus

    Ruler of the sky and thunder Father of the gods

    Hera Goddess of the hearth and motherhood Wife of Zeus

    Apollo God of music and light

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    Son of Zeus (but not Hera) Associated with the sun

    Artemis Goddess of the hunt and nature Twin sister of Apollo Associated with the moon

    Athena Goddess of wisdom, war, and useful arts

    Aphrodite Goddess of love Infamous for meddling in the affairs of men and gods

    Athens and Sparta

    Contrasting philosophies of government Athens

    Citizens= free adult males Women and foreigners had no political rights Slaves had no political rights Descendents of the Mycenaean people Athens= origin of democracy Democratic principles:

    direct democracy public debate duties of the citizen

    Stages in evolution of Athenian government:

    Monarchy Aristocracy Tyranny Democracy

    2 tyrants who worked for reform: Draco-

    Strict Code of Law (harsh guy)

    Solon- Organized, stable government Set the stage for democracy (good guy)

    Pericles statesman took control of Athens in 461 BC, was responsible for making

    Athens most prominent among the Greek city-states Sparta

    Oligarchy (rule by a small group) Rigid social structure The citizens only function was to serve in the military Militaristic and aggressive society

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    Descended from Dorian invaders formed after bloody slave rebellions Leonidas

    king Spartan hero

    Greek Culture, Wars, and Contributions

    The Persian Wars Greeks v. Persians= Athens and Sparta united; strengthening of Greek

    power and culture Golden age of Pericles

    between the Persian and the Peloponnesian Wars extended democracy to most adult males had Athens rebuilt after destruction in Persian Wars, including the

    Parthenon Hellenic

    Classical Greek Culture Formal, ordered, and simple

    Drama; comedy and tragedy Aeschylus Sophocles

    Poetry Homer

    History Herodotus Thucydides

    Sculpture Phidias

    Science Archimedes Hippocrates

    Mathematics Euclid Pythagoras

    Philosophy The Sophists: Ancient Greek Philosophers


    Father of Philosophy

    Socratic Method: Use questions to get students to analyze their own beliefs

    Executed for Corrupting the Youth of Athens Plato

    Student of Socrates

    Believed the real world was a reflection of the true reality

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    Wrote The Republic

    Founded The Academy Aristotle

    Student of Plato

    Believed the universe could only be understood through observation and logic

    Taught Alexander the Great Architecture

    The Golden Mean Types of Columns

    Doric o earliest o simplest in design o Ex: Parthenon

    Ionic o more ornate o developed later than the Doric

    Corinthian o most elaborate o used mostly during the Hellenistic Era

    Peloponnesian War Sparta v. Athens= weakening of Greek power and culture Athens and the Delian League versus Sparta and the Peloponnesian


    Macedonian Conquest Phillip II, King of Macedon:

    Conquered most of Greece Developed new military tactics Professional soldiers Phalanx Took advantage of disunity among the Greeks after the Peloponnesian

    Wars The Hellenistic World

    Alexander the Great adopted Greek culture and spread Hellenistic influences throughout his vast empire

    after the decline of Athens and Sparta modeled after Hellenic forms but more elaborate and with more

    foreign (Asian) influence Alexander the Great

    United the Greeks by waging war on the Persian Empire Conquered Persia and Egypt After his death Alexanders generals divided his empire

    Political unity ended but Greek culture and trade continued to spread