Ancient Greece and Western Civilization notes - Ancient Greece/Shared Documents/WHI.5... · Ancient…

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World History Voorhees 2011 WHI Ancient Greece lesson World History; Voorhees Ancient Greece and Western Civilization notes Where Western Civilization began! Greek culture is part of Western Civilization today the concept of hero mythology Olympics Democracy =political system in which the people of a country rule through any form of government they choose to establish Development and expansion of Greece Mountainous rocky land trade and colonization individual city-states Economic and social development: Not a lot of farmable land Greek economy relied heavily on trade Export olive oil and wine Import wheat Colonization for resources Greek civilization expanded Hellenic culture spread Shift from bartering to money system Political development: Mountainous terrain Good for city-states individually strong- designed to promote civic and commercial life Bad for city states not unified with each other/ separate Colonization Overpopulation Greek mythology Based on polytheistic religion Explanations of natural phenomena, human qualities, and life events Symbols and images in Western literature, art, and architecture Zeus Ruler of the sky and thunder Father of the gods Hera Goddess of the hearth and motherhood Wife of Zeus Apollo God of music and light World History Voorhees 2011 Son of Zeus (but not Hera) Associated with the sun Artemis Goddess of the hunt and nature Twin sister of Apollo Associated with the moon Athena Goddess of wisdom, war, and useful arts Aphrodite Goddess of love Infamous for meddling in the affairs of men and gods Athens and Sparta Contrasting philosophies of government Athens Citizens= free adult males Women and foreigners had no political rights Slaves had no political rights Descendents of the Mycenaean people Athens= origin of democracy Democratic principles: direct democracy public debate duties of the citizen Stages in evolution of Athenian government: Monarchy Aristocracy Tyranny Democracy 2 tyrants who worked for reform: Draco- Strict Code of Law (harsh guy) Solon- Organized, stable government Set the stage for democracy (good guy) Pericles statesman took control of Athens in 461 BC, was responsible for making Athens most prominent among the Greek city-states Sparta Oligarchy (rule by a small group) Rigid social structure The citizens only function was to serve in the military Militaristic and aggressive society World History Voorhees 2011 Descended from Dorian invaders formed after bloody slave rebellions Leonidas king Spartan hero Greek Culture, Wars, and Contributions The Persian Wars Greeks v. Persians= Athens and Sparta united; strengthening of Greek power and culture Golden age of Pericles between the Persian and the Peloponnesian Wars extended democracy to most adult males had Athens rebuilt after destruction in Persian Wars, including the Parthenon Hellenic Classical Greek Culture Formal, ordered, and simple Drama; comedy and tragedy Aeschylus Sophocles Poetry Homer History Herodotus Thucydides Sculpture Phidias Science Archimedes Hippocrates Mathematics Euclid Pythagoras Philosophy The Sophists: Ancient Greek Philosophers Socrates Father of Philosophy Socratic Method: Use questions to get students to analyze their own beliefs Executed for Corrupting the Youth of Athens Plato Student of Socrates Believed the real world was a reflection of the true reality World History Voorhees 2011 Wrote The Republic Founded The Academy Aristotle Student of Plato Believed the universe could only be understood through observation and logic Taught Alexander the Great Architecture The Golden Mean Types of Columns Doric o earliest o simplest in design o Ex: Parthenon Ionic o more ornate o developed later than the Doric Corinthian o most elaborate o used mostly during the Hellenistic Era Peloponnesian War Sparta v. Athens= weakening of Greek power and culture Athens and the Delian League versus Sparta and the Peloponnesian League Macedonian Conquest Phillip II, King of Macedon: Conquered most of Greece Developed new military tactics Professional soldiers Phalanx Took advantage of disunity among the Greeks after the Peloponnesian Wars The Hellenistic World Alexander the Great adopted Greek culture and spread Hellenistic influences throughout his vast empire after the decline of Athens and Sparta modeled after Hellenic forms but more elaborate and with more foreign (Asian) influence Alexander the Great United the Greeks by waging war on the Persian Empire Conquered Persia and Egypt After his death Alexanders generals divided his empire Political unity ended but Greek culture and trade continued to spread

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