ANCIENT - ART AND CULTURE - IN THE POST MAURYAN ART: Chaitya and vihar Chaitya - prayer hall by monks (karle chaitya in Maharashtra) Vihar - residence/rest places of monks (nashik vihar

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    First known example - mauryan ageAshoka - stupas and chaitya halls lost their original formProminent - chaitya halls with inscriptions of Asoka and Dasaratha


    SUDAMA / NYAGODH CAVE:Barabar hillsAshoka to AjivikasRectangular chamber connected to circular chamberEarliest example of rock cut method - exact translation ofWood carving on stone

    LOMASA RISHI CAVE:Nagarjuni hillsMauryan periodFrieze of elephants

    BHAJA CAVE:Oldest deccan caveDeep upsidal wallOctagonal pillarsCurved ribs- barrel vaulting of wooden buildingsGate- faade like a gableEnd - small stupa

    KARLE CAVE:Great chaitya hallPillars - square stepped plinthCapitals of horses/elephants to support roof which has ribs toRepresent barrel vaultingGate - carvings and large windowSangharama - monastery

    ELLORA CAVE:Cut by the buddhists

    ELEPHANTA CAVE:Trimurthi of shiva


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  • Rock cut caves - barabar and nagarjuni hills - earlest example is sudama caveNagarjuni hills - 3 caves discovered - dedicated to monks of ajivika sect by dasaratha(grandson of Asoka) - largest cave isGopi cave or milkmaid's cave - reactangular hall with barrel vaulted roof and with circular ends


    ELEPHANTA CAVE:Trimurthi of shiva

    CAVE TEMPLE OF MANDAGAPATTU:Built by Mahendravarman I

    PANCHA PANDAVA CAVE:MamallapuramBas relief

    ARJUNA PENACE:Also known as descent of gangaBuilt by pallavas

    UDAYAGIRI AND KANDHAGIRI CAVES OF ORISSABuilt by jainsHathi gumpha, rani gumpha and ganesha gumpha caves

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  • CAVES IN THE POST MAURYAN ART:Chaitya and viharChaitya - prayer hall by monks (karle chaitya in Maharashtra)Vihar - residence/rest places of monks (nashik vihar in ajantha caves)


    Development in the form of paintings:

    Ajanta caves:

    Aurangabad in maharashtra29 caves - buddhist in themeDiscovered in 1829Period of development - 200 BC to 650AD29 - 4 chaitya + 25 viharasCarved on a perpendicular cliff - no courtyardsAll 3 forms of art combined - architecture, sculpture and paintings(mural paintings)

    Technique involved: FIRST STEP: clay + cow dung + rice husk spread on rough surface of rockSECOND STEP: lime plasterTHIRD STEP: surface was kept moist until colour was applied (FRESCO PAINTINGS)Outlines are drawn in red colour and then all colours are used except blue as it cannot be obtained from hills

    Theme: Inspired by jataka stories

    CHAITYA CAVE NUMBER 19 OF AJANTA GROUP1)Gupta ageEntrance- flat roof - 4 pillars - huge chaitya window- separated by corniceWood - discardedAisle pillar pin side - beautiful motifsBuddha figure inside - mahayana school to chaitya architecture

    VIHARA CAVE NUMBER 16 & 172)Harisena - vakatak king65 ft square - 20 pillars - 6 residential cells for monks2 - end of verandah and 2-backBetween cells - rectangular sanctuary with buddha sitting in Pralambapada posture:feel hanging downPillars - not alikeInscription - chiatya mandiraCave 17 similar to 16 except wheel of life "bhava chakra"

    CAVE TEMPLE AT UDAIGIRI3)Near sanchi- gupta periodFront - Rock cut shrine chamber and pillared porticoFaade - 4 pillars with greater inter-columniation between inner 2 -characteristic gupta feature

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  • Inspired by jataka storiesFahien and hiuen tsang refer to ajantha 29 caves - 5 hinayana + 24 mahayana periodCave no.16 - most elegant architecturally

    Famous fresco paintings of ajantha:Dying princessFlying apsaraPreaching buddha


    34 caves3 religions - hinduism(17) + buddhism(12) + jainism(5)Carved on sloping side of hill- have courtyardsCave 10(chaitya) - vishvakarma - dedication to patron saint of craftsmenCave 14 - ravana ki khaiCave 15 - dashavathar caveCave 16 - kailash temple - carved out of monolith (kailash leni)Ellora - triple storeyed caves , Ajanta - double storeyed caves

    Jaina caves: indra sabha and jagannath sabha

    INDRA SABHA > JAGANNATH SABHASame techniques used in mural and fresco paintings


    Near bagh river in M.P9 buddhist cavesSimilar to ajanta caves


    GujaratUparkot meaning citadel - main featureUparkots - 30 to 50 ft high artificial platform connected by staircase to the hall


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  • 25 buddhist caves - hinayana period1st century ADCalled as pandav leniSpiritual presence of buddha denoted by throne and footprints


    Located in mandapeshwar8th century ADOnly brahmanical cave to be converted into christian cave

    Beginning of rock cut architecture by mauryans

    two features are addedPolishing inside the cave1)Development of artistic gateways2)Examples: barabar & nagarjuni caves in biharUses of cavesViharas in mauryan ageViharas are given to jain monks - ajivikas


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  • Earthened burial moundAnda -large hemispherical dome where a casket containing buddha relics(dhatu) was placed in small central chamberInner wall - unburnt brick, outer wall - burnt brickHarmika - square pavilion on the flattened summit of the domeChatra - umbrella built on the top of the domePradakshinapatha - path for clockwise circumambulation surrounded by a fence built encircling the stupaStone balustrade(wooden fence) consisted of thabas(octagonal upright posts) capped by uhnisa(continuous caping stone)These posts connected by 3 horizontal rails called suchis3 main stupas on this design - sanchi, bharhut and amaravathiSanchi stupa - enlarged by sungasTorana - gateways having sculptures depicting jataka talesSarnath stupa - made of brickNalanda stupa - enlarged 7 timeskanishka - massive stupa seen by fahien and hieun tsang at peshawar(shahji-ki-dheri)Concept of stupa - vedic periodAfter death of buddha - 9 stupas8 stupas - buddha's relics and ashes9th over vessels - relics originally depositedMax no. of stupas - Ashoka - 84000 - reached climax


    Mauryan - ashoka - sanchi stupaPost mauryan - more enlarged stupas, toranas- beautifully carved

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  • Post mauryan - more enlarged stupas, toranas- beautifully carvedGupta - less no. of stupas - dhamekh stupa near sarnath






    OTHER STUPAS:Imp-bodhgaya,nagarjunakonda and taxilaBodhgaya-no existence just few pillars of sunga period-depict jatakasNagarjunakonda- diff from n.india stupas1) highlight - excerpts from buddha's life sculptured beautifully on panels2) gods praying to bodhisatvas to take birth on earth 3) buddha's entry into womb in the form of white elephant and birth of buddha under a flowering teak tree

    Stupa of taxila - "CHIRA TOPE STUPA" - sir john marshallStupa of jhandial - found a silver casket enclosing one of gold - scytho pathian style


    Mauryan :

    Yaksh and yakshini:

    Shape - hemisphere - 120 ft in diameter - pradakshana pathCosmic mountain - symbolIvory carvers of vidisha - inscription(wood & ivory to stone) on southern gatewayWooden railings replaced by stone ones(9ft high)- excellent masonry workMost imp addition-end of 1st century BC- 4 marvelous toranas at 4 cardinal pointsSculptures(episodes of life of buddha and jataka stories)- finest ancient indian art

    2nd or 1st century BCLater - transformed from hinayana to mahayana shrineSouth india - no survival of stupasFinal shape in 2nd century AD-larger than sanchi stupaSculpture - extension of amaravathi school of artFig of stupa-slightly rounder,taller,slimmer - delicate modelingCeylon- "ABHAYAGIRI DAGAHABA"- anuradhapura reached tremendous proportions-327ft-bigger than pyramids of egypt

    Sculpted base, dome and hemisphereFurther development - sanchi and bharhutVery large stupas- nagarjunakonda in krishna valleyNagarjunakonda - mahachaitya- base in the form of swastika (sun symbol)

    2nd century BCImp for its sculpture as its dome is vanishedRailings - red stoneGateways,pillars,uprights and crossbars-full of sculptures-depict pictorial represenations of natureSculptures-portray realistic scenes of daily life

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  • Yaksh and yakshini:

    Post Mauryan:


    Outside influence Greek or hellenistic-indo greek art No outside influence/indigeneous indigeneous

    Type of sandstone Grey or bluish grey spotted red sandstone white marbles

    Religious influence

    Mainly buddhism All 3 religions - jainism,buddhism,hinduism mainly buddhism

    Promoted by kushans kushans satavahanas

    Areas NW frontier Mathura, kankalitila krishna godavari lower valley

    Features Spiritual buddha-calmnessBearded budhha-moustacheWearing less ornamentsGREEK-having wavy hair, large forehead,position of yogi,having large ears,eyes half closed , protruberence on his head

    Delighted buddha - not spiritualHead and face shavenMuscularityDress in tight, energitic bodyBuddhas face reflects graceSeated in padmasan right hand in abhaymudra raised above shoulder

    Left hand on left thigh which reflects muscularity, protruberance on head

    Reflects narrativeTheme based on life of buddha on jataka stories

    Stories of previous births of buddha -human and animal form





    Work-realistic-transfer of style developed on woodObjects of worship in folk regionYaksh - parkham,UP and pawaya,GwaliorYakshini - didarganj, bihar3 religions - jainism,buddhism and hinduismBuddhism - fig found on stupasJainism - 24 trithankaras associated with yakshiniHinduism - shilappadikaram mentions about yakshini

    New school added - sarnath school of sculptureDeveloped at sarnathCream colour sandstoneLack of nakedness - properly dressed and coveredDecorativeMetal sculpture developed ex: sultanganj buddha

    Every god - special attributes and symbolsBlack basalt, fine polishMamallapuram - relief of pallava king MAHENDRAVIKRAMAVARMAN and his queensPala style - descent of ganga or arjuna's penance and varahaGomateswara at sravanabelagola - chamundaraya-minister of ganga king RACAMALLA IV-depicts gomata the son of 1st tiayhankara in the rayotsarga posture(meditation while standing)

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  • Gupta period:

    Pala period:




    Buddhist jewel casket - bimaran(Afghanistan)Hellenistic- importedEx: kulu copper vase - pre gupta

    Pure copper7 1/2 ft tallWearing diaphanous cloakSome scholars - pala bronze

    Pala + cholas = 2 great medieval schools of metal sculpturePala bronzes - mass producedExport - S.E.Asia, Nepal and TibetBronzes - delicate in design with ornamental detail - lack deep religiosity

    Tamils preferred images of metalPhysical features, contours - textbooksEx: bronze natarajaIndian bronzes- cire perdue(MADHUCCHISTA VIDHANA) method

    Traced in tirumalai templeStatue of krishnadevaraya and his two chief queens in anjali mudraMarked their homage to the gods with half closed eyes

    Large bronzes of goddesesBuddhist tara, parvati and pattiniPattini - divine form of kannagi - female character of silappadigarama-ideal of wifely devotion


    4 styles developedDravidian1)Vesara2)Nayaka3)Vijayanagara4)In pallava school, temple architecture developed

    PALLAVAS:Mamallapuram cave temples - panchapandava, varaha Descent of ganga and arjuna's penance Pancha pandava raths and 2 pidari raths - Narasimhavarman II

    Shore temple at mamallapuram and kailasanath temple at kanchi - structural temples

    Kailasanth temple - barrel vaulted pyramidal tower

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  • Shore temple at mamallapuram and kailasanath temple at kanchi - structural temples

    Kailasanth temple - barrel vaulted pyramidal tower

    Pallava school of temple architecture emerged in 4 stages

    STAGE I - MAHENDRA GROUPRock cut architectureWord mandapa is used instead of temple

    STAGE II - NARASIMHA GROUPDecoration in rock cut cavesMandapa became rathasBiggest rath - Dharmaraja rathSmallest - draupadi rathDravidian style - dharmaraj rath was a precursor

    STAGE III - RAJASIMHA GROUPDevelopment of real structural templesShore temple and kailasanath temple

    STAGE IV - NANDIVARMAN GROUPDevelopment of small templesDravidian style continued

    4 parts - differ according to ages in which they are executedPrincipal part - temple > vimana - square in plan & pyramidal proof - image of god is placed


    Mandapas - covers and precede the door leading to the cell2)Gate - pyramids, gopurams > principal features in quadrangular enclosures3)Pillared halls or chaultris - various purposes4)Dravida style of temples are founded more in southern India. Here the shikara reduces in size along certain steps and not in a curve

    Ex: Brihadeswara temple at tanjore - RAJARAJA I, Gangaikonda cholapuram -RAJENDRA, SON OF RAJARAJA I

    Shikara is a crowning element at the top of the temple - octagonal cupola - equal to "AMALAK" & "KALASH" of nagara style

    Dravidian - only one vimana, crucified ground plan, uprised platformDravidian style started during pallavas but flourished during the rule of cholas

    DRAVIDIAN STYLE:Oldest style of architecture

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  • FUNCTIONS OF TEMPLES:ReligiousAdministrative centreControlling vast areas of land in terms of revenue collectionCentre of educationVarious sources of revenues of temples - donation and revenue collection

    CHOLAS:Vijayalaya - choleswara temple at Narttamalai > earliest chola templeBrihadeswara temple - great pyramidal tower (vimana) crowned by dome (kalasa) set the style for dravidian shikhara

    Rajendra I introduced the mahamandapa before the ardhamandapa in the Brihadeswara temple at Gangaikondacholapuram

    VESARA STYLE/ CHALUKYA STYLE/ KARNATAKA STYLEFeatures of both Nagara and Dravidian style2 principal components - vimana and mandapa > joined by Antarala

    Dont have covered ambulatory around sanctumPillars, door frames and ceilings are carvedEx: dodda basappa temple at dambal Lad khan temple at aihole and temples at badamiDeveloped in mid 17th century

    NAYAKA STYLEBest ex - meenakshi temple at maduraiMeenaksi was the daughter of a pandyan king who married Sundereswara (Siva)

    All the features of dravidian style are presentAdditional feature - prakarnsPrakarn - huge corridors along with roofed ambulatory passage ways

    Interior carvings are seen - temple wallsTank was addedConstructed with initiative of TirumalaiMid 17th century

    VIJAYANAGARA STYLE:Some variations from Dravidian style in temple architectureGopuram now enlarged1)High enclosure walls2)More decoration3)Sculpture of motif of supernatural horse4)God's chief wife AMMAN was provided with a separate shrineKalyana mandapam - god and goddesses marriedMandapa - 1000 pillared hallDecorative motifs like prancing horses, leoglyphs and monsteres were added.

    These additions can be seen at vittalswami temple at hampiSecular structures - vijayanagar throne room gateways in rajasthan and entrances to wells in gujarat

    Concept of secular buildings was introduced by vijayanagar empire. Ex: lotus mahal

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