ancient - art and culture - in the post mauryan art: chaitya and vihar chaitya - prayer hall by...

Download ANCIENT - ART AND CULTURE -   IN THE POST MAURYAN ART: Chaitya and vihar Chaitya - prayer hall by monks (karle chaitya in Maharashtra) Vihar - residence/rest places of monks (nashik vihar

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    First known example - mauryan ageAshoka - stupas and chaitya halls lost their original formProminent - chaitya halls with inscriptions of Asoka and Dasaratha


    SUDAMA / NYAGODH CAVE:Barabar hillsAshoka to AjivikasRectangular chamber connected to circular chamberEarliest example of rock cut method - exact translation ofWood carving on stone

    LOMASA RISHI CAVE:Nagarjuni hillsMauryan periodFrieze of elephants

    BHAJA CAVE:Oldest deccan caveDeep upsidal wallOctagonal pillarsCurved ribs- barrel vaulting of wooden buildingsGate- faade like a gableEnd - small stupa

    KARLE CAVE:Great chaitya hallPillars - square stepped plinthCapitals of horses/elephants to support roof which has ribs toRepresent barrel vaultingGate - carvings and large windowSangharama - monastery

    ELLORA CAVE:Cut by the buddhists

    ELEPHANTA CAVE:Trimurthi of shiva


    Culture-Architecture Page 1

  • Rock cut caves - barabar and nagarjuni hills - earlest example is sudama caveNagarjuni hills - 3 caves discovered - dedicated to monks of ajivika sect by dasaratha(grandson of Asoka) - largest cave isGopi cave or milkmaid's cave - reactangular hall with barrel vaulted roof and with circular ends


    ELEPHANTA CAVE:Trimurthi of shiva

    CAVE TEMPLE OF MANDAGAPATTU:Built by Mahendravarman I

    PANCHA PANDAVA CAVE:MamallapuramBas relief

    ARJUNA PENACE:Also known as descent of gangaBuilt by pallavas

    UDAYAGIRI AND KANDHAGIRI CAVES OF ORISSABuilt by jainsHathi gumpha, rani gumpha and ganesha gumpha caves

    Culture-Architecture Page 2

  • CAVES IN THE POST MAURYAN ART:Chaitya and viharChaitya - prayer hall by monks (karle chaitya in Maharashtra)Vihar - residence/rest places of monks (nashik vihar in ajantha caves)


    Development in the form of paintings:

    Ajanta caves:

    Aurangabad in maharashtra29 caves - buddhist in themeDiscovered in 1829Period of development - 200 BC to 650AD29 - 4 chaitya + 25 viharasCarved on a perpendicular cliff - no courtyardsAll 3 forms of art combined - architecture, sculpture and paintings(mural paintings)

    Technique involved: FIRST STEP: clay + cow dung + rice husk spread on rough surface of rockSECOND STEP: lime plasterTHIRD STEP: surface was kept moist until colour was applied (FRESCO PAINTINGS)Outlines are drawn in red colour and then all colours are used except blue as it cannot be obtained from hills

    Theme: Inspired by jataka stories

    CHAITYA CAVE NUMBER 19 OF AJANTA GROUP1)Gupta ageEntrance- flat roof - 4 pillars - huge chaitya window- separated by corniceWood - discardedAisle pillar pin side - beautiful motifsBuddha figure inside - mahayana school to chaitya architecture

    VIHARA CAVE NUMBER 16 & 172)Harisena - vakatak king65 ft square - 20 pillars - 6 residential cells for monks2 - end of verandah and 2-backBetween cells - rectangular sanctuary with buddha sitting in Pralambapada posture:feel hanging downPillars - not alikeInscription - chiatya mandiraCave 17 similar to 16 except wheel of life "bhava chakra"

    CAVE TEMPLE AT UDAIGIRI3)Near sanchi- gupta periodFront - Rock cut shrine chamber and pillared porticoFaade - 4 pillars with greater inter-columniation between inner 2 -characteristic gupta feature

    Culture-Architecture Page 3

  • Inspired by jataka storiesFahien and hiuen tsang refer to ajantha 29 caves - 5 hinayana + 24 mahayana periodCave no.16 - most elegant architecturally

    Famous fresco paintings of ajantha:Dying princessFlying apsaraPreaching buddha


    34 caves3 religions - hinduism(17) + buddhism(12) + jainism(5)Carved on sloping side of hill- have courtyardsCave 10(chaitya) - vishvakarma - dedication to patron saint of craftsmenCave 14 - ravana ki khaiCave 15 - dashavathar caveCave 16 - kailash temple - carved out of monolith (kailash leni)Ellora - triple storeyed caves , Ajanta - double storeyed caves

    Jaina caves: indra sabha and jagannath sabha

    INDRA SABHA > JAGANNATH SABHASame techniques used in mural and fresco paintings


    Near bagh river in M.P9 buddhist cavesSimilar to ajanta caves


    GujaratUparkot meaning citadel - main featureUparkots - 30 to 50 ft high artificial platform connected by staircase to the hall


    Culture-Architecture Page 4

  • 25 buddhist caves - hinayana period1st century ADCalled as pandav leniSpiritual presence of buddha denoted by throne and footprints


    Located in mandapeshwar8th century ADOnly brahmanical cave to be converted into christian cave

    Beginning of rock cut architecture by mauryans

    two features are addedPolishing inside the cave1)Development of artistic gateways2)Examples: barabar & nagarjuni caves in biharUses of cavesViharas in mauryan ageViharas are given to jain monks - ajivikas


    Culture-Architecture Page 5

  • Earthened burial moundAnda -large hemispherical dome where a casket containing buddha relics(dhatu) was placed in small central chamberInner wall - unburnt brick, outer wall - burnt brickHarmika - square pavilion on the flattened summit of the domeChatra - umbrella built on the top of the domePradakshinapatha - path for clockwise circumambulation surrounded by a fence built encircling the stupaStone balustrade(wooden fence) consisted of thabas(octagonal upright posts) capped by uhnisa(continuous caping stone)These posts connected by 3 horizontal rails called suchis3 main stupas on this design - sanchi, bharhut and amaravathiSanchi stupa - enlarged by sungasTorana - gateways having sculptures depicting jataka talesSarnath stupa - made of brickNalanda stupa - enlarged 7 timeskanishka - massive stupa seen by fahien and hieun tsang at peshawar(shahji-ki-dheri)Concept of stupa - vedic periodAfter death of buddha - 9 stupas8 stupas - buddha's relics and ashes9th over vessels - relics originally depositedMax no. of stupas - Ashoka - 84000 - reached climax


    Mauryan - ashoka - sanchi stupaPost mauryan - more enlarged stupas, toranas- beautifully carved

    Culture-Architecture Page 6

  • Post mauryan - more enlarged stupas, toranas- beautifully carvedGupta - less no. of stupas - dhamekh stupa near sarnath






    OTHER STUPAS:Imp-bodhgaya,nagarjunakonda and taxilaBodhgaya-no existence just few pillars of sunga period-depict jatakasNagarjunakonda- diff from n.india stupas1) highlight - excerpts from buddha's life sculptured beautifully on panels2) gods praying to bodhisatvas to take birth on earth 3) buddha's entry into womb in the form of white elephant and birth of buddha under a flowering teak tree

    Stupa of taxila - "CHIRA TOPE STUPA" - sir john marshallStupa of jhandial - found a silver casket enclosing one of gold - scytho pathian style


    Mauryan :

    Yaksh and yakshini:

    Shape - hemisphere - 120 ft in diameter - pradakshana pathCosmic mountain - symbolIvory carvers of vidisha - inscription(wood & ivory to stone) on southern gatewayWooden railings replaced by stone ones(9ft high)- excellent masonry workMost imp addition-end of 1st century BC- 4 marvelous toranas at 4 cardinal pointsSculptures(episodes of life of buddha and jataka stories)- finest ancient indian art

    2nd or 1st century BCLater - transformed from hinayana to mahayana shrineSouth india - no survival of stupasFinal shape in 2nd century AD-larger than sanchi stupaSculpture - extension of amaravathi school of artFig of stupa-slightly rounder,taller,slimmer - delicate modelingCeylon- "ABHAYAGIRI DAGAHABA"- anuradhapura reached tremendous proportions-327ft-bigger than pyramids of egypt

    Sculpted base, dome and hemisphereFurther development - sanchi and bharhutVery large stupas- nagarjunakonda in krishna valleyNagarjunakonda - mahachaitya- base in the form of swastika (sun symbol)

    2nd century BCImp for its sculpture as its dome is vanishedRailings - red stoneGateways,pillars,uprights and crossbars-full of sculptures-depict pictorial represenations of natureSculptures-portray realistic scenes of daily life

    Culture-Architecture Page 7

  • Yaksh and yakshini:

    Post Mauryan:


    Outside influence Greek or hellenistic-indo greek art No outside influence/indigeneous indigeneous

    Type of sandstone Grey or bluish grey spotted red sandstone white marbles

    Religious influence

    Mainly buddhism All 3 religions - jainism,buddhism,hinduism mainly buddhism

    Promoted by kushans kushans satavahanas

    Areas NW frontier Mathura, kankalitila krishna godavari lower valley

    Features Spiritual buddha-calmnessBearded budhha-moustacheWearing less ornamentsGREEK-having wavy hair, large forehead,position of yogi,having large ears,eyes half closed , protruberence on his head

    Delighted buddha - not spiritualHead and face shavenMuscularityDress in tight, energitic bodyBuddhas face reflects graceSeated in padmasan right hand in abhaymudra raised above shoulder

    Left hand on left thigh which reflects muscularity, protruberance on head

    Reflects narrativeTheme based on life of buddha on jataka stories

    Stories of previous births of buddha -human and animal form





    Work-realistic-transfer of style developed on woodObjects of worship in folk regionYaksh - parkham,UP and pawaya,GwaliorYakshini - didarganj, bihar3 rel