ancient and classical greece civilization comes to europe


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  • PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY The Land Mountains dominate land; cross land travel difficult Fertile river valleys were center of settlement River valleys formed basis of polis No place more than a few miles from sea Outdoor life common due to temperate climate The Sea Greece is a series of peninsulas, islands Sea travel easier than land communication Most Greeks took to the sea Economy Agriculture: Grains, honey, olives, grapes Herding: Goats, sheep, cattle Trade: Necessary to make up for lack of resources
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  • MINOAN SOCIETY Knossos Minoan society arose on Crete Arose late 3rd millennium B.C.E. Palaces at Knossos between 2000, 1700 B.C.E. Linear A, a kind of written language, is found Island of Crete From 2200 to 1450 B.C.E., center of Mediterranean commerce Received early influences from Phoenicia and Egypt Established colonies on Cyprus and islands in the Aegean Sea Society Much evidence of egalitarian society; women had rights Agriculture was important: grapes, olives, fishing, wheat Trade was very important: marble, artifacts, cloth Decline of Minoan Society After 1700 B.C.E., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis After 1450 B.C.E., wealth attracted a number of invaders By 1100 B.C.E., Crete fell under foreign (Hellenic) domination
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  • MYCENAEAN GREECE Mycenaean society Indo-Europeans settled in area, 2000 B.C.E. Settled in Peloponnesus around Mycenae Adapted Minoan Linear A into Linear B Fortified agricultural settlements Society resembled Aryan: emphasis on war, trade Kingdoms ruled by strongest of nobles; constant strife Chaos in the eastern Mediterranean 1100 to 800 BCE Mycenaeans engaged in Trojan war, about 1200 B.C.E. Troy may have been a Hittite city-state and trade rival Tomb of Agamemnon, Troy excavated by von Schliemann Recorded by Homer in the Illiad and the Odyssey More invasions by Hellenic tribes Sea Peoples Later Hellenic invaders moved by sea along coasts Seemed to have raided into Palestine, Egypt as Philistines
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  • THE GREEK DARK AGES 800 TO 500 B.C.E. Called Dark Ages due to loss of writing Age remembered through oral traditions Likely the Age of Homer Oral traditions of Illiad and the Odyssey A period of migration and warfare Hellenes spread to Italy, Sicily, Asia Minor, Cyprus The Hellenes Indo-Europeans who settled in area Tribes include Dorians, Attics, Achaeans Originally aristocratic societies Warfare, slavery, and trade common
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  • THE POLIS Greek City-State Polis = city-state; Poleis = city-states Metropolis = city of polis Acropolis = fortified center of city Boundaries shaped by geography Terms of politics come from POLIS Politics, politic, politician, polite, polity Police, metropolis, metroplex Most important Athens Sparta
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  • POLITICAL FORMS Archon: Greek for ruler English archy Kratien: Greek for to rule English cracy Demos: People Democracy (direct election) Aristos: The Best Aristocracy (nobles) Oligos: The Few Oligarchy (rule by select few) Monos: One Monarchy (rule by a king) Di: Two Diarchy (Spartas state had 2 kings) An: None Anarchy (No government) Theos: God Theocracy (Rule by priests, religion) Geron: Old Man Gerontocracy (rule by elderly) Pater: Father Patriarchy (rule by males) Mater: Mother Matriarchy (rule by women) Auto: Self Autocracy (dictatorial rule) Tyrannos: Tyrant Tyranny (rule by a dictator) Ethnos: Ethnic or locals Ethnarchy (rule by the local people)
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  • SPARTA Sparta Situated in a fertile region of the Peloponnesus Began to extend control during the 8th and 7th centuries B.C.E. Reduced neighboring peoples to the status of helots, or servants By 6th century B.C.E., helots outnumbered Spartans by 10 to 1 Maintained domination by a powerful military machine Spartan society Discouraged social distinction, observed austere lifestyle Distinction was drawn by prowess, discipline, and military talent Commitment to military values was strong Society was a military aristocracy; state ruled by two kings Young boys, girls educated in military barracks After marriage, men still lived at barracks; women ran homes Women: surprisingly free in comparison to other Greek women All merchants were foreigners licensed by state
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  • ATHENS Athens Population growth, economic development caused political strain Sought to negotiate order by democratic principles Citizenship was open to free adult males Foreigners, slaves, and women had no rights Athenian society Maritime trade brought about prosperity Aristocratic landowners were principal beneficiaries Class Conflict Owners of small plots began to sell lands Many debtors sold themselves into slavery Class conflict intensified, 6th century B.C.E. Solon and Athenian democracy Solon forged a compromise between the classes Opened polis councils for any male citizen Pericles (ca. 443-429 B.C.E.) The most popular democratic leader of Athens Ruled Athens during its Golden Age
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  • GREECE & THE LARGER WORLD Greeks founded more than 400 colonies Controlled Black, Aegean, Adriatic, Ionian Seas Settled Sicily, S. Italy, Corsica, France, Spain, Africa Settled Coasts of Yugoslavia, Albania, Turkey, Cyprus Effects of Greek colonization Facilitated trade among Mediterranean lands Facilitate exchanges between peoples, cultures Spread of Greek language and cultural traditions Stimulated development of surrounding areas Spread civilization to ancient, Neolithic areas Warfare increased Technology stimulated: naval, navigation, astronomy
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  • GREEK MILITARY Based on citizen soldiers Lightly armed, armored foot soldiers (Hoplites) Carry shields, long spear All citizens had to furnish own arms, armor All citizens expected to fight in army, navy All citizens had military training in school Fought in massed formations called Phalanx Very useful in rugged terrain; used 10 long pikes Easily defeats massed cavalry favored by others Greek navy Rowed vessels called galleys Most famous was the trireme or three oar banked Rowed by free citizens Fought by ramming other vessels; than hand to hand Greek fleets included larger vessels Equites or mounted troops were aristocrats
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  • THE PERSIAN WARS The Persian War (500-479 B.C.E.) Cyrus and Darius controlled Anatolia Greek cities on Ionian coast revolted, 500 B.C.E. Darius Invasion The battle of Marathon, 490 B.C.E. Greeks led by Spartans and Athens battled Persia to a draw Xerxes Invasion To fight Persians, Athenians build a wall of wood, or a navy Xerxes seized, burned Athens Athenian navy destroys Persian in the battle of Salamis, 480 B.C.E. Persian army retreated back to Anatolia, 479 B.C.E. The Delian League Alliance among Greek poleis against Persian threat Military force from Athens, finance from other poleis As Persian threat subsided, poleis no longer wanted to participate Athens uses navy to turn Delian League into Athenian Empire
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  • PELOPONNESIAN WAR Pericles Rebuilds Athens Athens experiences a Golden Age Pericles turns Delian states into Athenian colonies 30 Year Civil War (431-404 B.C.E.) Athens and Allies vs. Sparta and Allies Costly victories/defeats and plague wreck city Unconditional surrender of Athens, 404 B.C.E. Hegemony first by Sparta and then by Thebes Constant warfare between leagues, allies Spartan hegemony replaced by Theban Greece horribly weakened Athens remained intellectual center of Greece
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  • RISE OF MACEDONIA The kingdom of Macedon A frontier state north of peninsular Greece Partially Hellenized society Philip of Macedon (re. 359-336 B.C.E.) Built a powerful army, overcame the power of clan leaders Began to offend Greece from 350 B.C.E. Brought Greece under control by 338 B.C.E. Murdered possibly by wife and son Alexander of Macedon and his conquests Educated by Aristotle; gifted in many areas At age 20, Alexander succeeded Philip Invaded Persia, controlled Ionia and Anatolia, 333 B.C.E. By 331 B.C.E., controlled Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia Invaded Persian homeland and burned Persepolis Crossed Indus River by 327 B.C.E. Died in 323 B.C.E. at age of 33
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  • HELLENISTIC EMPIRES The Hellenistic Era: Age of Alexander and his successors Saw a blending of Hellenic (Greek) and Asian, Egyptian traditions A Greek layer of upper class ruled over an Asians, Egyptians The Antigonid empire in Greece, Macedonia and Thrace Continuous tension between the Antigonid rulers and Greek cities The economy of Athens flourished again through trade Overpopulation, many moved to the Seleucid empire The Ptolemaic empire ruled Egypt, Cyprus, often Holy Land The wealthiest of the Hellenistic empires Greek rulers did not interfere in Egyptian society Efficient organization of agriculture, industry, and taxation Royal


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