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  • Analysis of pesticides, POPs and emerging contaminants in catfish

    Yelena Sapozhnikova

    United States Department of Agriculture,

    Agricultural Research Service, Wyndmoor, PA, USA

  • US seafood import

    Year Million metric tons

    2014 2.6

    2015 2.7

    2016 2.8

  • Freshwater imported fish, 2016

    http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/commercial-fisheries/foreign-trade/

  • US freshwater fish import

    21%

    http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/commercial-fisheries/foreign-trade/

  • US catfish import

    Vietnam, China, Cambodia

  • Nutrients in catfish

  • Omega-3 fatty

    acids:

    Amino acids:

    Vitamins:

    Niacin: 2.105 mg

    Vitamin B-12: 2.88 mg

    Vitamin A: 1 mg

    Vitamin E: 0.81

    Vitamin D (D2+D3): 0.2 g

    Vitamin D: 9 IU

    Vitamin K: 2.1 g

    20:5 n-3 (EPA): 0.015 g

    22:6 n-3 (DHA): 0.057 g

    Leucine: 1.153 g

    Lysine: 1.386 g

    Aspartic acid: 1.487 g

    Arginine: 0.951 g

    Alanine: 0.860 g

    Nutrients per 100 g

  • Organic contaminants

    POPs

    PCBs

    Toxic stable OC pesticides

    PBDEsPAHs

    Emerging environmental contaminants

  • Flame retardants

    Phase-out of some PBDE commercial mixtures => increasing number of alternate flame retardant chemicals

    Large volume production chemicals used in textiles, electronics and other consumer products

  • Multi-class, multiresidue method

    Pesticides

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs)

    Novel alternate flame retardants (FRs)

    250

    total

  • Advantageous analytical technique

    SimpleHigh throughput

    Efficient Green

    Inexpensive Fast

  • Sample preparation - QuEChERS

    Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe

  • Add 10 mL MeCN

    shake 10 min on vortex shaker

    10 g of homogenized tissue + Internal

    standards

    Add 4 g anh. MgSO4 & 1 g NaCl, shake 1 min

    centrifuge 3 min at 4150 rpm

    Phase separation

    Add 1 mL extract to 150 mg anh. MgSO4, 50 mg Z-Sep

    Shake 1 min, centrifuge, filtrated-SPE cleanup

    Sapozhnikova, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2014, 62, 3684-3689

  • 150 pesticides, 50 environmental contaminants & 12 internal standards

    16

    >200 analytes in 10 min

    Low pressure (vacuum outlet) GC

    Solvent delay

  • Recoveries:

  • Method validation

    Accuracy: 72 - 120%

    p,p-DDT - 52%

    p,p-DDD 45%

    PCBs

    PBDEs

    Pesticides

    PCBs

    PAHs

    Pesticides

    IS: atrazine-d513C12-p,p-DDE

  • Catfish analysis

    Farm raised catfish samples

    USA: catfish Vietnam: swai China: catfish & basa Cambodia: swai

  • Pesticides in catfish, ng/g

  • Pesticides in catfish, ng/g

  • In aquaculture products imported from Viet Nam, there

    were notifications for trifluralin in Pangasius spp.

    products, three of which also contained chlorpyriphos.

  • Environmental contaminants in catfish, ng/g

    PAHs

    Flame retardants

  • Acknowledgements

    USDA/ARS:

    Dr. Steve Lehotay

    Tawana Simons

    Jennifer Cassidy

  • Questions?