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  • U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    DOT-VNTSC-NHTSA-02-03 March 2003 DOT HS 809 571

    Analysis of Lane Change Crashes

    Research and Special Programs Administration Volpe National Transportation Systems Center Cambridge, MA 02142-1093

    This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161

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    NOTICE This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of theDepartment of Transportation in the interest of informationexchange. The United States Government assumes no liabilityfor its contents or use thereof.

  • REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188

    Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188), Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank)

    2. REPORT DATE

    March 2003 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED

    Final Report May 2000 March 2003

    4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

    Analysis of Lane Change Crashes 6. AUTHOR(S) Basav Sen*, John D. Smith, and Wassim G. Najm

    5. FUNDING NUMBERS

    HS319/S3059

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Department of Transportation Research and Special Programs Administration John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center Cambridge, MA 02142

    8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER DOT-VNTSC-NHTSA-02-03

    9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Department of Transportation National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 400 7th St. SW Washington, DC 20590

    10. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER

    DOT HS 809 571

    11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

    *EG&G Technical Services, Inc. 55 Broadway Cambridge, MA 02142 12a. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22161.

    12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE

    13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This report defines the problem of lane change crashes in the United States (U.S.) based on data from the 1999 National Automotive Sampling System/General Estimates System (GES) crash database of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. The results from this analysis provide a basis for related future research in the U.S. Department of Transportations Intelligent Vehicle Initiative. Lane change crashes are defined in this report as two-vehicle crashes that occur when one vehicle encroaches into the path of another vehicle initially on a parallel path with the first vehicle and traveling in the same direction. Such encroachment results from various vehicle maneuvers including typical lane change, merge, pass, drift, turn, and leave or enter a parking position. Approximately 539,000 two-vehicle lane change crashes occurred in the U.S. in 1999. The analysis of pre-crash scenarios identified the seven most common scenarios that accounted for about 88% of all two-vehicle lane change crashes. Ten percent of typical lane change crashes involved large trucks changing lanes and light vehicles going straight; about 5% of these crashes involved the reverse combination. Similarly, trucks were turning and light vehicles were going straight in 10% of the turning at junction crashes; the reverse combination was reported in only 1% of these crashes. The highest involvement of trucks was observed in the merging scenario, accounting for 42% of these crashes. Finally, the physical setting of the seven scenarios was described in terms of the number of travel lanes per direction of travel, crash relation to junction, posted speed limit, roadway alignment, and roadway profile. The report also examines possible contributing factors using available GES variables.

    15. NUMBER OF PAGES 49

    14. SUBJECT TERMS lane changes, crashes, crash-imminent scenarios, test scenarios, Intelligent Vehicle Initiative

    16. PRICE CODE

    17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified

    18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified

    19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT Unclassified

    20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

    NSN 7540-01-280-5500 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 2-89)

    Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239-18 298-102

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    METRIC/ENGLISH CONVERSION FACTORS ENGLISH TO METRIC METRIC TO ENGLISH

    LENGTH (APPROXIMATE) LENGTH (APPROXIMATE) 1 inch (in) = 2.5 centimeters (cm) 1 millimeter (mm) = 0.04 inch (in) 1 foot (ft) = 30 centimeters (cm) 1 centimeter (cm) = 0.4 inch (in)

    1 yard (yd) = 0.9 meter (m) 1 meter (m) = 3.3 feet (ft) 1 mile (mi) = 1.6 kilometers (km) 1 meter (m) = 1.1 yards (yd)

    1 kilometer (km) = 0.6 mile (mi)

    AREA (APPROXIMATE) AREA (APPROXIMATE) 1 square inch (sq in, in2) = 6.5 square centimeters (cm2) 1 square centimeter (cm2) = 0.16 square inch (sq in, in2) 1 square foot (sq ft, ft2) = 0.09 square meter (m2) 1 square meter (m2) = 1.2 square yards (sq yd, yd2)

    1 square yard (sq yd, yd2) = 0.8 square meter (m2) 1 square kilometer (km2) = 0.4 square mile (sq mi, mi2) 1 square mile (sq mi, mi2) = 2.6 square kilometers (km2) 10,000 square meters (m2) = 1 hectare (ha) = 2.5 acres

    1 acre = 0.4 hectare (he) = 4,000 square meters (m2)

    MASS - WEIGHT (APPROXIMATE) MASS - WEIGHT (APPROXIMATE) 1 ounce (oz) = 28 grams (gm) 1 gram (gm) = 0.036 ounce (oz) 1 pound (lb) = 0.45 kilogram (kg) 1 kilogram (kg) = 2.2 pounds (lb)

    1 short ton = 2,000 pounds (lb) = 0.9 tonne (t) 1 tonne (t)

    = =

    1,000 kilograms (kg) 1.1 short tons

    VOLUME (APPROXIMATE) VOLUME (APPROXIMATE) 1 teaspoon (tsp) = 5 milliliters (ml) 1 milliliter (ml) = 0.03 fluid ounce (fl oz)

    1 tablespoon (tbsp) = 15 milliliters (ml) 1 liter (l) = 2.1 pints (pt) 1 fluid ounce (fl oz) = 30 milliliters (ml) 1 liter (l) = 1.06 quarts (qt)

    1 cup (c) = 0.24 liter (l) 1 liter (l) = 0.26 gallon (gal) 1 pint (pt) = 0.47 liter (l)

    1 quart (qt) = 0.96 liter (l) 1 gallon (gal) = 3.8 liters (l)

    1 cubic foot (cu ft, ft3) = 0.03 cubic meter (m3) 1 cubic meter (m3) = 36 cubic feet (cu ft, ft3) 1 cubic yard (cu yd, yd3) = 0.76 cubic meter (m3) 1 cubic meter (m3) = 1.3 cubic yards (cu yd, yd3)

    TEMPERATURE (EXACT) TEMPERATURE (EXACT) [(x-32)(5/9)] F = y C [(9/5) y + 32] C = x F

    QUICK INCH - CENTIMETER LENGTH CONVERSION

    10 2 3 4 5

    InchesCentimeters 0 1 3 4 52 6 1110987 1312

    QUICK FAHRENHEIT - CELSIUS TEMPERATURE CONVERSION -40 -22 -4 14 32 50 68 86 104 122 140 158 176 194 212

    F

    C -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

    For more exact and or other conversion factors, see NIST Miscellaneous Publication 286, Units of Weights and Measures. Price $2.50 SD Catalog No. C13 10286 Updated 6/17/98

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Page EXECUTIVE SUMMARY..........................................................................................................viii

    1 INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................... 1

    1.1 Previous Work................................................................................................................. 2 1.2 Analysis Data Bases ........................................................................................................ 2

    1.2.1 Lane Change/Merge Crashes: Problem Size Assessment and Statistical Description ....................................................................................................................... 2 1.2.2 Examination of Lane Change Crashes and Potential Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) Countermeasures .................................................................................... 3 1.2.3 Synthesis Report: Examination of Target Vehicular Crashes and Potential Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Countermeasures ............................................ 4 1.2.4 Crash Avoidance System Task I Final Report ....................................................... 4

    2 DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF LANE CHANGE CRASHES ........................ 7

    2.1 Target Crash Population.................................................................................................. 8 2.2 Pre-Crash Scenarios ........................................................................................................ 9

    3 STATISTICAL DESCRIPTION OF LANE CHANGE CRASH SCENARIOS ................. 13

    3.1 Vehicle Type Distribution for Pre-Crash Scenarios...................................................... 13 3.2 Physical Setting of Lane Change Crashes..................................................................... 16

    3.2.1 Number of Travel Lanes per Direction ................................................................. 17 3.2.2 Relation to Junction............................................................................................... 18 3.2.3 Posted Speed Limit................................................................................................ 19 3.2.4 Roadway Alignment and Profile ....

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