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  • ANALYSING EFL STUDENTSARGUMENTATIVE

    WRITING DIFFICULTIES AND TEACHING

    STRATEGIES EMPLOYED BY LECTURERS

    IN SELECTED UNIVERSITIES IN THAILAND

    MALEERAT KA-KAN-DEE

    UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA

    2015

  • ANALYSING EFL STUDENTSARGUMENTATIVE

    WRITING DIFFICULTIES AND TEACHING

    STRATEGIES EMPLOYED BY LECTURES IN

    SELECTED UNIVERSITIES IN THAILAND

    by

    MALEERAT KA-KAN-DEE

    Thesis submitted in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    Doctoral of Philosophy

    August 2015

  • ii

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    First and foremost, my utmost appreciation goes to my supervisor, Associate

    Professor Dr. Sarjit Kaur, for her insightful advice and constructive comments in

    every stage of my thesis. Throughout the course of my PhD research, she never

    failed to provide me continuous encouragement and invaluable advice. Her

    professional guidance and clarifications tremendously contributed to the completion

    of the thesis.

    This research study would not have been possible without the kind support

    and help of Khon Kaen University and Khon Kaen University, Nong Khai Campus

    that supported me with the scholarship to complete this research study. I would like

    to extend my sincere thanks to my university.

    I would also like to express my special gratitude and thanks to all the

    participants who took part in my study. In addition, I am also indebted to the raters

    for grading the Thai EFL students essays.

    I would like to thank senior lecturers from Khon Kaen University who

    provided me with academic guidance and support during the process of data

    collection and students verbal report transcription process.

    My deepest gratitude goes to my parents and my husband for their

    understanding and encouragement during my difficult time. Finally, all thanks to

    Allah for listening to and answering my prayers, Alhamdulillah.

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements ii

    Table of Contents iii

    List of Appendices vii

    List of Tables viii

    List of Figures ix

    List of Abbreviations x

    Abstrak xi

    Abstract xiii

    CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1

    1.0 Background of the Study 1

    1.1 Challenges in Teaching Writing in ESL/ EFL Contexts 4

    1. 2 Overview of Thailand 7

    1.2.1 The Education System in Thailand 9

    1.2.2 Role of English in Thailand 12

    1.3 Profile of Mahasarakham University 17

    1.3.1 Department of Western Language and Linguistics at

    Mahasarakham University in Thailand 18

    1.4 Profile of Udon Thani Rajabhat University 19

    1.4.1 Department of English Language and Literature at Udon Thani

    Rajabhat University 20

    1.5 Statement of the Problem 21

    1.6 Objectives of the study 24

  • iv

    1.7 Research Questions 25

    1.8 Scope of Study 25

    1.9 Significance of the Study 26

    1.10 Limitations of the Study 28

    1.11 Definition of Key Terms 29

    1.12 Summary 31

    CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 32

    2.0 Introduction 32

    2.1 The Writing Process 32

    2.1.1 Approaches to the Teaching and Learning of EFL Writing 35

    2.1.2 The Structure of Argumentative Essays 43

    2.1.3 Rhetorical Structure of Argumentative Essays 46

    2.2 Argumentative Writing 57

    2.2.1 Definition of argumentative writing 57

    2.2.2 Concepts of Argumentation 62

    2.2.3 Theoretical Foundations of Argumentation 64

    2.2.4 Argumentative Schemata Theory 66

    2.2.5 Aristotles Rhetorical Triangle 68

    2.3 Teaching Theories 72

    2.3.1 Krashen's Theory on Language Acquisition 72

    2.3.2 Flower and Hayes' Theory 78

    2.3.3 Constructivist Teaching Strategies 88

    2.4 Conceptual Framework of Study 93

    2.5 Related Research on think-aloud protocols 95

  • v

    2.6 Related Research on Writing Difficulties 100

    2.7 Related Research on Argumentative Writing Difficulties 107

    2.9 Summary 111

    CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 112

    3.0 Introduction 112

    3.1 Research Design 112

    3.2 Population and Sampling 117

    3.3 Research Instruments 119

    3.3.1 Think aloud protocols 121

    3.3.2 The Semi-structured Interviews 124

    3.3.2.1 Semi structured interview for Thai EFL English

    Lecturers 125

    3.3.2.2 Semi structured interviews for EFL English major

    students 127

    3.3.3 Classroom Obser

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