An Introduction to the History of Czechoslovak Thought and Science: A Critical Bibliography

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  • An Introduction to the History of Czechoslovak Thought and Science: A Critical BibliographyAuthor(s): Miloslav Rechcigl, Jr.Source: Isis, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Spring, 1971), pp. 79-95Published by: The University of Chicago Press on behalf of The History of Science SocietyStable URL: .Accessed: 09/05/2014 11:21

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  • An Introduction to the History f

    Czechoslovak Thought and Science:

    A Critical ibliography

    By Miloslav Rechcigl, Jr.*

    IN RECENT YEARS there has been an increased emphasis on the study of Slavic and East European affairs, in practically every major field of human endeavor. These

    studies for the most part concern the U.S.S.R., while relatively little attention has been devoted to other East European countries. The field of history of science is no excep- tion in this regard. The present compilation has been undertaken in an effort to fill-at least partially-the gap which has so long existed. To my knowledge this is the first comprehensive, although necessarily selective, bibliography of fundamental sources dealing with the history of Czechoslovak thought and science, here as well as abroad. It is intended as a working bibliography for scholar, student, teacher, librarian, and the like, and it is hoped that it will stimulate historians of science to take a serious look into the brilliant and oft-unexplored past of Czechoslovak science.

    How many of our contemporaries realize that such illustrious names as Agricola, Jessenius, Tycho Brahe, Marci, Kepler, Comenius, Kekule, Barrande, Matthioli, Rokitansky, Skoda, Bolzano, Mendel, Freud, Purkinje, and Cori have been associated with Czech lands, either through their birth, national origin, or by their work there? Not too many, I am sure. By the same token, only a few students of the history of science are cognizant of the fact that the first engineering school in Europe was located in Prague; or that the etymological origin of the word dollar can be traced to the Czech thaller, which had been coined in Jaichymov mines between 1519 and 1670 and which served then as a gold monetary unit in Central Europe.

    If these words will arouse doubt and skepticism, so much the better; then my effort will not have been in vain. Such doubt in a scholar's mind can mark the beginnings of a serious future study.

    Contents of the Bibliography

    A. Intellectual and Cultural Life in General 1. Bibliographies 2. Biographical Materials 3. Reference Works and Collections of Works

    B. Academies and Learned Societies and Institutions 1. Serials 2. Histories, Activities, and Publications

    *Agency for International Development, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C. 20523.


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    C. Philosophy 1. Bibliographies 2. Histories and Surveys

    D. Scientific and Technological Thought 1. Bibliographies 2. Serials 3. Historical Development

    E. Science Policy and Organization of Research 1. Bibliographies 2. Descriptive and Analytical Surveys



    1. Bibliographies

    1. Miloslav Rechcigl, Jr. "Czechoslovakia and Its Arts and Sciences: A Selective Bibliography in the Western European Languages," pp. 555-634 in The Czecho- slovak Contribution to World Culture (see 7).

    A comprehensive bibliography of books and important articles concerning Czechoslovakia with emphasis on its cultural accomplishments and influences throughout history. Altogether there are 1,318 entries in classified arrangement, covering the humanities, arts, social sciences, natural sciences, technology, and Czechs and Slovaks in the United States and other countries.

    2. Miloslav Rechcigl, Jr. "Czechoslavakia in Bibliography: A Bibliography of Bibliographies," pp. 1693-1801 in Czechoslovakia Past and Present. Vol. II: Essays on the Arts and Sciences. The Hague/Paris: Mouton, 1969.

    A bibliography of general bibliographies and related reference materials on Czechoslovakia, regardless of language and place of publication. It comprises bibliographies of bibliographies, general bibliographies on Slavic and East Central Europe, selective bibliographies on Czechoslovakia, bibliographies of publications on and by Czechoslovak emigrants and exiles, library catalogues outside Czecho- slovakia, and Czechoslovak national bibliographies. These are followed by biblio- graphies of incunabula and early printed books, bibliographies of dissertations and other academic publications, and bibliographies of dictionaries and translations. In addition to these true bibliographies there are also sections on general encyclo- pedias and handbooks, biographical materials, and miscellaneous bibliographic aids, such as dictionaries of abbreviations, anonyms, and pseudonyms, information about libraries and archives and the state of librarianship in Czechoslovakia, lists of books on printing and book production, and publications concerning Czechoslovak book art.

    2. Bibliographical Materials

    3. Antonin Dolensky, ed. Kulturni adresar' CSR. Biograficky slovnik zijicich kulturnich pracovnikuz a pracovnic. (Cultural Directory of the Czechoslovak Republic. A

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    Biographical Dictionary of Living Cultural Workers.) Prague: Nakladatelstvi J. Zeibrdlich, 1934. 586 pp., illus., port., col. plts.

    Still the best and, in fact, the only available one-volume reference source, providing 5,500 short biographies of prominent Czechoslovak personalities in various fields of the arts, letters, and science, from the era of the First Czechoslovak Republic. Persons entered are listed according to their field of interest as well as alphabetically. The book includes lists of Czechoslovak cultural and research centers, universities, technical and arts schools, scientific institutions, libraries, museums, archives, societies, academies, foundations, as well as pseudonyms. For the contemporary era one may refer to Heinrich Kuhn and Otto Boss, Biographisches Handbuch der Tschechoslowakei (Munich: Robert Lerche, 1961, 640 pp.). For earlier periods see F. M. Pelzel, Abbildungen boihmischer u. mlihrischer Gelehrten und Kiinstler. Nebst Nachrichten v. ihretn Leben u. Wirken (Prague, 1773-1782, 4 vols.).

    4. Eva Rechcigl, comp. Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences in America, Inc. Directory. New York: Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences in America, 1966. 80 pp.

    Brief biographies of some 1,000 members of the Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences in America representing prominent Czechoslovaks, in just about every field of cultural endeavor, who live in the United States, Canada, Latin America, Australia, and Western Europe. The members are listed in alphabetical order as well as by geographical location and field of interest. A report on the activities and publications of the society for 1956-1966 is appended.

    A revised edition appeared under the title Directory of the Members of the Czecho- slovak Society of Arts and Sciences in America, Inc. (New York, 1969, 100 pp.)

    3. Reference Works and Collections of Works

    5. Vladimir Nosek. The Spirit of Bohemia: A Survey of Czech History, Music and Literature. London: Allen and Unwin, 1926. 379 pp.

    Although somewhat out of date, this book provides a good introduction to Czechoslovakia's culture, character, mentality, and spiritual achievements. Despite the title, information on Slovakia is also given; in particular, Slovak literature is covered in fair detail. May be supplemented with Karel Capek, et al., At the Cross-Roads of Europe. A Historical Outline of the Democratic Idea in Czecho- slovakia (Prague: Pen Club, 1938, 275 pp.). Among contemporary publications of this type, one may refer to Emil Schieche and Friedrich Repp, Die Kultur der Tschechen und der Slowaken (Frankfurt a. M.: Athenaion, 1966, 136 pp.). Slovak culture is dealt with in Stephen J. Palickar's Slovakian Culture in the Light of History, Ancient, Medieval and Modern (Cambridge, Mass.: Hampshire Press, 1954, 283 pp.). The book is partisan in approach, being written by a supporter of the Slovak separatist cause.

    6. Vilem Mathesius, ed. Co daly nase zeme Evrope' a lidstvu. (What our Country Has Contributed to Europe and to Mankind.) 2nd ed., Prague: Sfinx-Bohumil Janda, 1940. 430 pp.

    An excellent collection of articles and essays written by leading Czech scholars

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    of the prewar era. Probably the best single-volume work in the Czech language dealing with various aspects of Czechoslovak culture and its influences on other civilizations, from the beginnings of the Great Moravian Empire up to the Second World War. May be supplemented by Ferdinand Tadra's Kulturni styky Cech s cizinou az do valek husitskych (The Cultural Contacts of Bohemia with other Countries up to the Hussite Wars) (Prague: Krailovska' Ceska' spolecnost nauk, 1897, 436 pp.). The latter publication is a thorough and objective survey, based on primary sources, of the mutual relations of Bohemia and other countries, covering all fields of human endeavor, including scholarship, the arts, and commerce.

    7. Miloslav Rechcigl, Jr., ed. The Czechoslovak Contribution to World Culture. The Hague/London/Paris: Mouton, 1964. 682 pp., figs., plt., tbls., index, bibl.

    An English counterpart of Mathesius' volume (6). A collection of 57 papers, most of which were originally presented at the First Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences in America. A wide variety of topics is covered under the following headings: literature and literary criticism, linguistics, music and fine arts, history, political science and philosophy, sociology, economics, law, science and technology, Czechs and Slovaks abroad, and bibliography. Appendices include biographies of authors and a detailed name and subject index. Of a similar arrange- ment are the Proceedings of the Second Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Arts and Sciences in America, Czechoslovakia Past and Present, ed. Miloslav Rechcigl, Jr. Vol. I: Political, International, Social, and Economic Aspects. Vol. II: Essays on the Arts and Sciences (The Hague/Paris: Mouton, 1969).

    8. Ceskoslovenskd vlastivMda. Dil X: OsvcVta. (Book of Knowledge on Czechoslovakia. Vol. X: Learning.). Edited by Otakar Ka'dner. Prague: Sfinx-Bohumil Janda, 1931. 650 pp., index, illus.

    An authoritative survey of the advances in education, scholarship, and science in Czechoslovakia with emphasis on the preceding fifty years, since the time of the National Revival. Covers education, theology, law literature, historical literature, philology, literature of natural sciences (including mathematics, physics, chemistry, mineralogy, geology, geomorphology, botany, zoology, geography), travel, cultural contacts with other countries, tourism, physical education and sports. The book is a sequel to an earlier, equally authoritative publication, Pamatnik na oslavu padesdtileteho panovnickeho jubileajeho veli6enstva a krale Frantiska Josefa L Vedeckj a umelecky rozvoj v narode ceskem 1848-1898 (A Festschrift Commemorat- ing the 50th anniversary of the Reign of His Majesty the Emperor and King Franz Josef I. The Scientific and Artistic Advances of the Czech Nation 1848-1898.) (Prague: Nakl. Ceske akademie cisaire Frantis'ka Josefa pro vedy, slovesnost a umeni, 1898, 1089 pp.).

    9. Karol Rosenbaum, ed. Slovenska kulti2ra 1945-1965. (Slovak Culture, 1945-1965.) Bratislava: Obzor, 1965. 156 pp.

    Six essays by different authors presenting an official evaluation of the 20-years' progress in Slovakia after the Second World War. Significant contemporary achievements in literature and the arts are attributed to the favorable policies of the present socialist government in Czechoslovakia. For a Marxist interpretation of cultural developments in Slovakia from the time of the Great Moravian Empire up to the present, see Stefan Pasiar and P. Paska, Osveta na Slovensku. Jej vznik, pociatky a vjvoj (Learning in Slovakia. Its Origin, Beginnings and Development) (Bratislava: Osveta, 1964, 352 pp.).

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    10. Kultura-Dodatky. Sbornik pradvnich predpisu. (Culture-Supplements. Collection of Legal Regulations.) Compiled by Karel Neumann. Prague: Orbis, 1968. 1306 PP.

    A compendium updating three similar editions previously published on legal provisions concerning Czechoslovakia's cultural establishment.


    1. Serials

    11. Ceskoslovenska akacdemic ved. Vestnik. (Bulletin.) Vol. I-, 1891-. Prague: Nakladatelstvl Ceskoslovenske akadeniie ved. Bimonthly.

    The official journal of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, reporting on research and publishing activities, with information on officials and organization changes. Issues of October 1891 to October 1952 by Ieskal akademie ved a umeni (called through June 1918 Ceska' akademie cisarie Frantis'ka Josefa pro vedy, slovesnost a umeni). Indices: Vols. I-XXV, 1891-1916, in Vol. XXV.

    2. Histories, Activities, and Publications

    12. The Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences; the Slovak Academy of Sciences. Handbook, 1964. Prague, 1964. 246 pp., index.

    Prepared by the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, this handbook provides data concerning the academy and the Slovak Academy of Sciences, as of January 1, 1964. Contains information regarding the legal aspects of the establishment of the academy, its statutes, biographical sketches of the members, executive bodies and organs of the academy, and lists of the affiliated institutes and scientific societies, as well as journals published by the academy. Progress reports concerning research activities of various institutes and laboratories of the academy are to be found in Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. Slovak Academy of Sciences 1952-1966 (Prague: Academia, 1967, 371 pp.). Detailed information on research activities in the bio- logical institutes of the academy can be obtained from Biological Institutes of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences 1950-1960. Anniversary Volume and Bibliography (Prague: Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 1961, 412 pp.).

    13. 10 (deset) let nakladatelstvi Ceskolovenslc akademie ved, 1953-1962. (Ten Years of the Publishing House of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, 1953-1962). Prague, 1963. 196 pp.

    A catalogue of books (arranged by subject) and periodicals issued by the academy during its first ten years of existence, with the projected publishing program for 1963. A comparable catalogue of the Slovak Academy of Sciences' publications appeared in Publikationen des Verlages der Slowakischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1953-1962, compiled by Valeria Ponicanova' and Edita gutkova' (Bratislava: Verlag der Slowakischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1963, 165 pp.). The current publications of the Prague Academy are listed in its annual, Bibliograficky katalog.

    For a list of the academy's predecessor, the Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts, see Vestnik Ceske akademie ved a umeni (Bulletin of the Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts), Supplement to Vol. 58, 1948, and Publikace Ceske akademie vydane v

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    letech 1891-1903 (Prague: teska' akademie cisaire Frantiska Josefa pro vedy, slovesnost a umeni, 1904, 19 pp.).

    14. Ceskoslovenskai akademie zemjdjlskjch vcvd. Organizace a cJinnost. 1953-1959. (The Czechoslovak Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Organization and Activities 1953-1959). Edited by Bohuslav Mairan. Prague: Staitni zemedelske nakladatelstvi, 1960. 220 pp.

    Furnishes basic data about the Czechoslovak Academy of Agricultural Sciences (including its affiliated branch in Slovakia). Contains the text of the decree establishing the governing organs of the academy, the members, organization, institutes and other research establishments, review of research activities, and publication activities. Comparable information about the prewar Czechoslovak Academy of Agriculture is given in The Czechoslovak Academy of Agriculture. Its Foundation, Programme, Organisation and Activities, compiled by Edward Reich and Bohus Vlacil (Prague: Czechoslovak Academy of Agriculture, 1931, 53 pp., illus.).

    15. Jaroslav Prokes. Pocatky Ceske spolec6nosti nauk do konce 18. stoleti. Dil I: 1774-1789. (The Beginnings of the Bohemian Society of Sciences Up to the End of the 18th Century. Vol. 1: 1774-1789.) Prague: Kralovska Ceskai spolecnost nauk, 1938. 362 pp.

    An authoritative treatise rendering a detailed account of the origin and the beginnings of the society-the starting point and the center of organized scientific and scholarly research in Bohemia. May be supplemented with Seznam 6lenu Krdlovske (Oeske spolec6nosti nauk 1784-1884 (List of the Members of the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences 1784-1884) (Prague: Kralovska' Ceska' spolecnost nauk, 1884).

    A concise and interpretative analysis of the activities of the society through its 180 years of existence was published in the form of three essays in Vestnik Krdlovske Ceske spolec6nosti nauk, Trida Filosoficko-historicko-filologickac, Anne' 1951 (Prague, 1953).

    A critical survey of the literary activities and scholarship sponsored by the society during its first 100 years is presented in Josef Kalousek's Geschichte der Kon. Bdhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften sammt seiner kritischen Ubersicht ihrer Publicationen aus dem Bereiche der Philosophie, Geschichte und Philologie (Prague: Verlag der Kon. Bohmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 1885, 303 pp.) and in Frantisek Studnicka's Bericht uber die mathematischen und naturwissenschaftlichen Publikationen der Kdnigl. Bdhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften wahrend ihres hundertjdhrigen Bestandes (Prague, 1885, 351 pp.)

    16. Obecny rejstdk spisuz kralovske' Ceske spolec6nosti nauk 1905-1935. Operum a regia societate scientiarum Bohemica annis 1905-1935 editorum index generalis. Prague, 1938. 69 pp.

    A general index to the publications issued by the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences 1905-1935. For earlier writings sponsored by the Society see the following indices:

    I. J. Hanus, Systematisch und chronologisch geordnetes Verzeichnis sammtlicher Werke und Abhandlungen der kdnigl. bdhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften (Prague, 1854, 80 pp.)

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    Wilhelm Rudolph Weitenweber, Repertorium sdmmtlicher Schriften der konigl. bdhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften vom Jahre 1769 bis 1868 (Prague, 1869, 120 pp.).

    Georg Wegner, Generalregister zu den Schriften der kdnigl. bdhmischen Gesell- schaft der Wissenschqften 1784-1884 (Prague, 1884, 160 pp.).

    Georg Wegner, Generalregister der Schriften der kdnigl. bdhmischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften 1884-1904 (Prague, 1905, 106 pp.).

    17. Revue des travaux scientifiques TcheJcoslovaques. Section premtiere. Philosophie, philologie, histoire, sciences sociales, economie, politique, jurisprudence. Vols. I-VI, 1919-1924. Prague, 1924-193 1. Section deuxie?me. mathematiques, physique, chimie, sciences biologiques ... techniques ... me'dicales. Vols. I-III, 1919-1924. Prague, 1924-1931.

    Published under the joint auspices of the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences and the Czech Academy of Sciences and Arts. The volumes, containing concise and authoritative French or English summaries of scholarly and scientific works and papers written in Czech or Slovak, provide an excellent overview of Czechoslovak scholarship during the First Czechoslovak Republic.

    18. Josef Hanus. Ndrodni museum a nase obrozeni. (The National Museum and Our [Czech] Renaissance.) Prague: Nakl. Ntarodniho musea, 1921-1923. 2 vols. Index, illus., ports., fold. plans, facsims.

    Published on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the founding of the National Museum. A monumental work of the Czech National Revival, emphasizing the role of the National Museum of Bohemia-the symbol of Czech national traditions. An overall review of the recent organization and activities of the museum, together with an historical evaluation of the contributions and advances made by various depart- ments and a brief history of the closely related Spolecnost Nairodniho musea (The Society of the National Museum) and Matice ceska' (The Czech "Matice") is presented in NVdrodni museum 1818-1948 (The National Museum 1818-1948) by Gustav Skalsky, et al. (Prague: Nairodni museum, 1949, 253 pp.).

    A good insight into literary and other activities of the museum can be obtained by examination of its official journal, the index of which has been recently published: Pravoslav Kneidl, et al., comp., Casopis Ndrodniho muzea 1827-1956. Rejstrik 125 rocniku muzejniho casopisu. Svazek L Systematickj sezman (The Journal of the National Museum. Index to 125 Volumes of the Journal. Vol. I. Subject Arrange- ment) (Prague: Nairodni muzeum, 1961, 400 pp.).

    19. Matica Slovenskd v naRich definach. Sbornik stat!. (The Slovak Matica in Our History. A Collection of Articles.) Bratislava: Slovenska' akademia vied, 1963. 431 pp., plts., index.

    Based on a series of lectures presented in 1963 at a conference sponsored by the Historical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the founding the Slovak Matica. The papers depict the role the Matica played in the national history of the Slovaks. The founding of the Matica may be viewed as the most important event in the Slovak national development of the whole 19th century; it soon became the symbol of the entire spiritual life of the Slovak people. May be supplemented with Andrej Mraiz, Matica slovenskd v rokoch 1863-]875 (The Slovak Matica in the Years 1863-1875) (Turciansky Sv. Martin:

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    Matica slovenska', 1935, 119 pp.) and Julius Botto, Dejiniy Matice slovenskej (The History of the Slovak Matica) (Turciansky Sv. Martin: Matica slovenska', 1923, 237 pp.).

    For information on the Ucena spolecnost' Safarikova (The Learned gaftrik Society), its role in the development of scientific life in Slovakia, as well as its successors-the Slovak Learned Society, the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Arts, and the present Slovak Academy of Sciences-see Frantisek Bokes, Snahy o organizovanie slovenskej vedy od konca 18. storocia do vzniku SA V (Efforts to Organize Slovak Science from the End of the 18th Century up to the Founding of the Slovak Academy of Sciences) (Bratislava: VSAV, 1967, 120 pp.).


    1. Bibliographies

    20. Andrej Pawlow; Boris Jakowenko. Kurze Bibliographie der neuen tschechoslowaki- schen Philosophie. Prague, 1935. 58 pp., index. (Internationale Bibliographie fur Philosophie, Bd. 1, Nr. 3.).

    A bibliography of philosophical writings, both books and articles, published in Czechoslovakia. Covers publications in all languages, mostly from the period following the establishment of independent Czechoslovakia in 1918, although important publications of the earlier period are also included. Another excellent bibliography of Czechoslovak philosophy from its beginnings up to the modern times, ending in the era of the First Czechoslovak Republic, is included in Josef Kral's (eskoslovenskafilosofie (Prague: Melantrich, 1937). For a bibliography of philosophy after the Second World War, see Dezider Slesiar, Bibliografiafilozofie. VJ'ber zakladnej kniznej tvorby z oblasti filozofie a metodicke' pokyny k Rlidiu (A Bibliography of Philosophy. A Selection of Basic Books in Philosophy and in Methodological Guidance to Its Study) (Martin: Matica slovenska, 1964, 115 pp.), which lists mostly Slovak publications.

    Information on current publication, especially articles, is available in a monthly index, Novinky literatury-Spolecenske' vedy. Rada L Filosoficke' vedy. 1962- (Prague: Staitni knihovna ISSR and Bibliograficke stiredisko spolecenskych ved).

    2. Histories and Surveys

    21. Josef Kral. Ceskoslovenska filosofie. Ndstin vjvoje podle disciplin. (Czechoslovak Philosophy. A Sketch of Its Development according to Disciplines.) Prague: Melantrich, 1937. 337 pp. (Vysokoskolske rukoveti. IIJ. Rada spisu' duchovjdnich, sv. 3).

    A concise historical survey of the development of philosophical thought in Czechoslovakia from its beginnings up to the end of 1935. Special chapters are devoted to noetics, logic, ethics, psychology, aesthetics, philosophy of religion, pedagogy, sociology, history of philosophy, the spiritual basis of the Czech philosophy, and German and Slavonic philosophy in Czechoslovakia. The book includes an exhaustive bibliography of original works as well as translations.

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    May be supplemented with Josef Kral, La philosophie en Tche'coslovaquie. Aperf u historique (Prague: Statni tiskarna, 1934, 47 pp.); Boris Jakowenko, ed., La philoso- phie tchecoslovaque contemporaine Prague: Der russische Gedanke, 1935, 170 pp; Emanuel ChalupnO, Ndrodni filosofie ceskoslovenskl (National Philosophy of Czechoslovakia) (Prague: 1932, 256 pp.); and Frantisek Krejii, Kritische Blicke auf den gegenwirtigen Stand des philosophischen Denkens -in Bdhmen (Prague, 1924) (Vfstnik Krdlovske ( eske spolecnosti nauk); F. Krej'i, Filosofie poslednich let pred vadkou (The Philosophy of the Last Years before the War) (Prague: Laichter, 1918, 463 pp.).

    Slovak philosophy before the Second World War is treated in Sam 9t. Osusk'y Prve' slovenske dejinyfilozofie (The First Slovak History of Philosophy) (Liptovsky Sv. Mikulas: Tranoscius, 1939, 426 pp.) and D. Cyzevskyj, Stfirovafilozofia zivota (The Stur's Philosophy of Life) (Bratislava, 1941).

    22. Johann Amos Comenius. Johannis Amos Comnenii Opera omnia. Prague: Cesko- slovenska akademie v6d, 1967-.

    This is the first edition of the complete works of Jan Amos Komensky (Comeniius), one of the most eminent figures in Bohemian history, an educator and scholar of world fame, whose lifelong endeavor centered around pansophy-the principle of unification of all scientific, philosophical, political, and religious knowledge into an all-embracing, unified system. Only fear of seasickness, the story has it, prevented Comenius, the bishop of the Unitas Fratrum and undoubtedly the most illustrious Czech exile of the 17th century, from accepting the offer of Harvard University to become its first president. Of the numerous books about him the following are recommended: Matthew Spinka, John Amos Com-nenius. That Incomparable Moravian (Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1943, 177 pp.; bibl., pp. 156-170); Jaromir Kopecky, Jan Patocka, and Jili Karasek, Jan Amos Komenskj Nastin zivot a diVa (John Amos Comenius. An Outline of his Life and Work) (Prague: Statni pedago- gicke' nakladatelstvi, 1957, 272 pp., illus., maps, plans); J. Popelova', Jana zmose Konenskeho cesta k vsenaprave (John Amos Comenius' Path to Universal Reform) (Prague, 1958); Jan Novak and J. Hendrich, Jan Amos Komenskp. Jeho zivot a spisy (John Amos Comenius. His Life and Writings) (Prague, 1920-1932); G. H. Turnbull, Hartlib, Drury, and Comenius (Liverpool/London, 1947); Josef Brambora, Knizini dulo Jana Amose Komenskeho (Writings of John Amos Comenius) 2nd ed. (Prague, 1957); M. Bohatcova, J. A. Komensk;. Soupis rukopisa (J. A. Comenius. A Bibliography of Manuscripts) (Prague, 1957); E. Urbankova, comp., Soupis del J. A. Komenskeho v c6eskoslovenskych knihovrnach, archivech a muzei'ch (A Bibliography of the Writings of J. A. Comenius in Czechoslovak Libraries, Archives and Museums) (Prague, 1959); Marta Beckova, Komeniana vydana knizne od roku 1945 (Comeniana Issued in Book Form since 1945) (Prague: Statni pedagogicka knihovna Komenskeho, 1967, 56 pp.).

    23. Wiliam Preston Warren. Masaryk's Democracy. A Philosophy of Scientific and Moral Culture. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1941. 254 pp. Bibl.: pp. 239-243.

    An attempt at synthesis of the philosophy of Tomas Garrigue Masaryk, Czech scholar, statesman, the founder and the first president of the Czechoslovak Republic from 1918 to 1935. His practical philosophy encompassing learning, politics, morality, and religion, which was the foundation of all of his political activities, had a profound influence in molding the mind of his nation. His convictions are clearly

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    reformulated in Karel Capek's Hovory s T. G. Masarykemn (Conversations with T. G. Masaryk) (Prague: F. Borovy, 1931-1935, 3 vols.). English translations by M. and R. Weatherall appeared as President Masaryk Tells His Story (London: Allen and Unwin, 1934, 302 pp.) and Masaryk on Thought and Life (London: Allen and Unwin, 1938, 214 pp.).

    For further information on Masaryk as a thinker see the bibliography and articles in Festschrift Thomas G. Masaryk zum 80. Geburtstag, ed. Boris J. Jakowenko (Bonn: F. Cohen, 1930, 2 vols.) and a monograph, Emanuel Raidl, La philosophie de T. G. Masaryk (Prague, 1938) (Bibliotheque internationale de philosophie, Vol. IV, Nos. 1-2). For a Marxist point of view of Masaryk's philosophy, see Lubomir Nov', Filozofie T. F. Masaryka (Prague: Statni pedagogicke nakladatelstvi, 1962, 129 pp.).

    24. Robert Kalivoda; Josef Zumr, eds. Antologie z d4jin c'eskoslovenskefilosofie. Dil I. (Anthology of the History of Czechoslovak Philosophy. Vol. I.) Prague: Cesko- slovenska' akademie ved, 1963. 560 pp., illus., index.

    The first of the projected two-volume anthology of the history of Czechoslovak philosophy, prepared by the members of the Institute of Philosophy of the Czecho- slovak and the Slovak academies of sciences, jointly with members of the philosophi- cal faculties of Charles University (Prague) and of Purkyne University (Brno). An attempt to present a synthetic picture of the history of Czech and Slovak philosophy from the Marzist viewpoint. Following the introductory essay, the collection brings profiles of individual thinkers and selected texts from their writings together with commentaries. It starts with the medieval Hussite movement and ends with the epoch of "radical democracy" in the 1850s. Selections include the profiles and the writings of Jan Hus, Petr Chelcicky, Jan Amos Komensky, Jain Bayer, Jain Kollar, L'udovit Stur, Jozef Miroslav Hurban, Janko Krail', Ignaic Born, Jiri Prochaizka, Bernard Bolzano, Jan Evanhelista Purkyne, Frantis'ek Palacky, Augustin Smetana, Emanuel Arnold, Karel Sabina, Josef Vaclav Fric.

    The forthcoming second volume will cover the period from 1848 to 1945.

    25. Ceskoslovensk'a akademie ved. Sekce ekonomie, pr'ava a filosofie. Filosoficky uistav. Filosofie v d4jinach ceskeho naroda. (Philosophy in the History of the Czech Nation.) Prague: Ceskoslovenska' akademie ved, 1958. 321 pp.

    Transactions of the National Conference on the History of Czech Philosophy held in Liblice, April 14-17, 1958. The papers were intended as a first step toward an authoritative synthesis of Czech philosophy from a Marxist point of view. Includes chapters on Hussite thought, Komensky, Bolzano, Czech Herbartism, Masaryk, Marxist philosophy in Czech lands, and the history of philosophy viewed as philoso- phy. German and Russian summaries.

    For special periods of Czech philosophy as viewed by the contemporary Marxist historians of philosophy see: Karel Kosik, Ceska radikalni demokracie (Czech Radical Democracy) (Prague: Statni nakladatelstvi politicke literatury, 1958, 482 pp.); Robert Kalivoda, Husitska ideologie (Hussite Ideology) (Prague: Cesko- slovenska akademie ved, 1961, 560 pp.).

    Marxist profiles of Czech philosophers are provided in A. Kolman, Bernard Bolzano (Prague: Statni nakladatelstvi politicke literatury, 1958, 225 pp.); J. Cern'y, JiriProchazka a dialektika v ne'mecke fiilosofii (Georg Prochazka and the Dialectics in German Philosophy) (Prague: Ceskoslovenska akademie ved, 1960, 346 pp.); I. Michinaikova, Filosofickj odkaz Augustina Smetany (The Philosophical Legacy of

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    Augustin Smetana) (Prague: Svobodne slovo, 1963, 254 pp.); K. Chvatik, Bedrich Vdclavek a vjvoj marxisticke' estetiky (Bedriich Va'clavek and the Development of Marxist Aesthetics) (Prague: Ceskoslovenska' akademie ved, 1962, 391 pp.).

    26. Elena Varossova, ed. Prehl'ad dejin slovenskej filozofie. (A Concise History of Slovak Philosophy.) Bratislava: Vydav. Slovenskej akademie vied, 1965. 555 pp., illus.

    A greatly enlarged and rewritten version of an earlier publication, Kapitoly z dejfin slovenskejfilozofie (Chapters from the History of Slovak Philosophy) (Brati- slava: Vydav. Slovenskej akademie vied, 1957, 476 pp.). Offers a comprehensive account of the history and development of philosophical and social thought in Slovakia as viewed by the contemporary Slovak Marxist historiographers. German and Russian summaries.

    For the Marxist interpretation of specific epochs of Slovak philosophical thinking, see Teodor Miinz, Filozofa slovenskeho osvietenstva (Philosophy of the Slovak Revival Period) (Bratislava: Vydavatel'stvo slovenskej akademie vied, 1961, 257 pp., illus.); Elena Varossova, Slovenske' obrodenecke myslenie (Slovak Ideology in the Period of the National Revival) (Bratislava: Vydavatel'stvo Slovenskej akademie vied, 1963, 220 pp.); Jain Uher, Filozofia v boji o dnes'ok. Problemy rozvojafilozofie na Slovensku po roku 1945 (Philosophy in Its Struggle for the Present. Problems of the Development of Philosophy in Slovakia after 1945) (Bratislava: Slovenska' akademia vied, 1961, 250 pp.) (Filozoficka biblioteka, zv. 10); Igor Hrus'ovsky, Z minulosti a stic'asnosti filozofie (From Past and Contemporary Philosophy) (Bratislava: Slovenska akademia vied, 1961, 347 pp.).

    27. Slavomil Strohs. Marxisticko-leninskd filosofie v Ceskoslovensku mezi dvema svetovjmi valkami. (Marxist-Leninist Philosophy in Czechoslovakia between the Two World Wars.) Prague: Nakl. Ceskoslovenske akademie ved, 1962. 223 pp.

    A history of Marxist-Leninist philosophy in Czechoslovakia before the Second World War, its influence on the philosophical thinking of other countries, and the role it played in the origin and establishment of the socialist system in today's Czechoslovakia. Deals with personalities who can be considered the founders of modern Czechoslovak Marxist-Leninist philosophy, including Ladislav Szanto, Jaroslav Kabes, Pavel Reimann, Eduard Urx, Frantisek Albert, Zdenek Nejedl'y, Jan Sverma, Josef Wagenkneckt, Ludvik Svoboda, and Kurt Konrad.

    On the origins of Marxism in Czechoslovakia, see: 1. Dubsky, Pronikdni marxismu do c`eskjch zemi (Penetration of Marxism into the Czech Lands) (Prague: Statni nakladatelstvi politicke literatury, 1963, 493 pp.).

    The growth of Marxist-Leninist philosophy in Czechoslovakia following the Second World War is ably described and evaluated in Nikolaus Lobkowicz's Marxismus-Leninismnus in der CSR. Die tschechoslowakische Philosophie seit 1945 (Dordrecht: D. Reidel, 1962, 267 pp.) (Sovietica. Abhandlungen des Osteuropa Inistituts, Universitat Freiburg, Schweiz, 2.)


    1. Bibliographies

    28. Ceska' bibliografie dejin priirodnich ved, lekairstvi a techniky. (Czech Bibliography of the History of the Natural Sciences, Medicine, and Technology.) In Sbornik

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    pro dejiny prirodnich ved a techniky. Vol. III-, 1957-. Prague: Nakl. Cesko- slovenske akademie ved. Annual.

    A yearly bibliography of books and articles (including book reviews and reports) on history of science, medicine, and technology published in the provinces of Czechoslovakia during the course of the year. Classified arrangement. The corres- ponding Slovak bibliography appears in Z dejin vied a techniky na Slovensku (Bratislava: Vydavatel'stvo Slovenskej akademie vied), Vol. I-, 1962-.

    The projected 20-set retrospective Bibliografie dcjin ceskoslovenske techniky (A Bibliography of History of Czechoslovak Technology) is being published, according to different specialities, by the National Technical Museum in Prague, in its series Rozpravy Ndrodniho technickeho muzea (Prague, 1962-).

    2. Serials

    29. Sbornik pro dejiny pr'irodn[ch ved a techniky. Acta historiae rerum naturalium nec non technicarum. Vol. I-, 1954-. Prague: NakI. Ceskoslovenske akademie ved. Annual.

    An annual of the Historical Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, devoted to the history of science and technology, with emphasis on Czech lands. The corresponding Slovak serial, Z dehin vied a techniky na Slovenslcu (From the History of Science and Technology in Slovakia) has been published at irregular intervals since 1962 by the Historical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences.

    Historians of technology should consult Sborn[k Ndrodn[ho technickeho muzea (Archives of the National Technical Museum) Prague, Vol. I-, 1955-, which is published irregularly by the staff of the National Technical Museum in Prague.

    The Zpravy Ceskoslovenske spolec'nosti pro dejiny ve'd a techniky pr'i Cesko- slovenske akademii ved (Reports of the Czechoslovak Society for the History of Sciences and Technology under the auspices of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences), No. 1-, 1965-, contains short articles and notes concerning the history of science and technology, in addition to news reports on the activities of the society and its numerous specialized sections, personal items concerning members and the proceedings of the meetings. It supersedes the earlier Zpravy Komise pro dijiny pr'irodnich, ljka*skfch a technickych ved CSA V (Reports of the Commission for the History of Natural, Medical, and Technical Sciences of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences), Nos. 1-20, 1959-1965.

    Beginning with 1967, Academia, the publishing house of the Czechoslovak Academv of Sciences, has begun publication of a quarterly, DejJiny ved a techniky (History of Sciences and Technology).

    3. Historical Development

    30. Lubos Nov', ed. Dejiny exaktnich vwd v ceskych zemnich. (History of the Exact Sciences in the Czech Lands.) Prague: Nakl. Ceskoslovenske akademie ved, 1961. 432 pp., illus.

    An authoritative history of mathematics, astronomy, physics, and chemistry in the Czechoslovak provinces of Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia, written by a collec- tive of scientific workers of the Historical Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of

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    Sciences. Presents a synthetic picture, from the point of view of Marxist historio- graphy, of evolutionary stages of the exact sciences in Czech lands, as linked with the rest of the world and related to the production and needs of man. Contains a com- prehensive biographical index and an adequate summary in English and Russian. For a review of the book, see K. Hujer, Isis, 1964, 55: 99-101.

    A comparable history concerning Czechoslovak technology is currently being prepared by the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, under the title Dejiny cesko- slovenske techniky (History of Czechoslovak Technology).

    The following monographs deal specifically with history of chemistry: Adalbert Wrany, Geschichte der Chemie und der auf chemischer Grundlage beruhenden Be- triebe in Bdhmen bis zur Mitte des 19. Jahrhunderts (Prague : Verlag von Fr. Rivnad, 1902, 43 pp.); Frantis'ek Petrd and Bohumil Hajek, 0 v'voji jeske chemie (The Development of Czech Chemistry) (Prague: Orbis, 1954, 153 pp.); G. Druce, Two Czech Chemists. Bohuslav Brauner 1855-1935, Franti0ek Wald 1861-1930 (London, 1944).

    31. Bediich Polik, ed. Na prahu nasi techniky. (On the Threshold of our Technology.) Prague: Staitni nakladatelstvi technicke literatury, 1957. 419 pp., illus., index.

    A collection of studies depicting the technological progress and the beginnings of technological education and technical museum science in Czech lands. Written by a collective of workers of the National Technical Museum in Prague on the occasion of the 250th anniversary of the founding of the Prague Engineering School, the oldest engineering school in Europe. Russian and German summaries. For additional reading, see Frantisek Kadera5vek and J. Pulkrabek, 250 let technickfrh skol v Praze, 1 707-1957 (250 Years of the Prague Technical Schools, 1707-1957) (Prague: Nakl. leskoslovenske akademie v6d, 1958, 69 pp., illus.).

    From the older literature the following publications are recommended: Josef B. Strainsky, ed., Z vyvoje ceske' technicke' tvorby (The Growth of Czech Technological Creativity) (Prague: Spolek ceskych inzenyrrd, 1940, 402 pp., illus.); L. Karpe, Bohmen in der Geschichte der Technik (Prague, 1936); Albert Vojt6ch Velflik, De6jiny technickeho ucfeni v Praze (History of the Prague Technical School) (Prague: (eska matice technicka, 1906-1909, 2 vols.).

    A popular account of Czechoslovak history of technology is given in R. 9tech- miller, 2iva minulost nasi techniky (The Live Past of our Technology) (Prague: MIada fronta, 1954,264 pp.).

    The Marxist point of view of industrialization of Bohemia is expounded in Jaroslav Purs, Pru'myslova revoluce v c'eskfch zemich (The Industrial Revolution in Czech Lands) (Prague: Staitni nakladatelstvi technickie literatury 1960, 164 pp.), and in Arnos't Klima, Manufakturnl obdobi v (echdch (The Manufacturing Period in Bohemia) (Prague: 1eskoslovenska akademie ved, 1955, 523 pp.).

    On history of mining, see Jan Koiran, Pfehledne dijiny ceskoslovenskiho hornictvi (Concise History of Czechoslovak Mining) (Prague: CeskoslovenskA akademie ved, 1955, 214 pp.).

    32. Ladislav Viniklif, comp. V.Tvoj jeske pflrodov6dy. (The Development of Czech Natural Science.) Prague: Pfirodov6deckf klub, 1931. 187+23 pp., illus., ports.

    A memorial volume published on the occasion of the 60th year of the existence of the Natural History Club in Prague. In addition to the personal reminiscences of members pertaining to the history and activities of the club, it contains critical surveys on the development of natural sciences in the Czech lands, including anthro-

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    pology, zoology, botany, geology, mineralogy, and petrology. May be supplemented with Frantisek Roubik, Prehled vyvoje vlastivednJho popisu Cech (An Outline of the Development of the Natural Resources Surveys in Bohemia) (Prague, 1940, 147 pp.).

    For the role of the Bohemian Society of Sciences in the development of natural sciences, from the point of view of Marxist historiography, see Mikula"s Teich, Kralovska' 6eska' spolecnost nauk a pocatky vedeckejho pruzkumu pr'irody v Cechach (The Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences and the Beginnings of Scientific Surveys of Natural Resources in Bohemia) (Prague: Ceskoslovenska' akademie ved, 1959, 77 pp.) (Rozpravy Ceskoslovenske akademie ved. Rada spoleJenskfch ved, Vol. 69,, No. 4), a condensed English version of which appears in Historica (Prague), 1960, 2: 161-181.

    From the older literature, see V. Maiwald, Geschichte der Botanik in Bohmen (Vienna/Leipzig, 1904); and Adalbert Wrany, Die Pflege der Mineralogie in Bdhmen (Prague: Verlag von H. Dominicus-Th. Gruss, 1896).

    33. Universita Karlova v Praze. Fakulta vseobecneho leka'rstvi. De'jiny c'eskoslovenskeho lkkar'stvi. L Od praveku do roku 1740. (The History of Czechoslovak Medicine. I: From Primitive Times up to the Year 1740.) By E. Chlumnskai, et al., 173 pp. II: Od roku 1740-1848. (From the Year 1740 to 1848.) By L. Sinkulova. 209 pp. Prague: Staitni pedagogicke nakladatelstvi, 1965.

    An outline of the history of Czechoslovak medicine with interpretative analyses of the events and the development of thought based on current Marxist ideology. Primarily intended as a textbook for medical schools.

    On the history of Czech medicine see: M. Matou-sek, Ceske lekar'stvo v druhe' polovine 19. stoleti (Czech Medicine in the Second Half of the 19th Century) (Prague, 1947, 158 pp.); Otakar Matou'sek, Lekari' a prNlrodovedci doby Purkyniovy. 2ivotopisne' studie (Physicians and Natural Scientists of the Purkyne Period. Biographical Studies) (Prague: Staitni zdravotnicke nakladatelstvi, 1954, 280 pp.); Vladislav Kruta, Med. Dr. JiWi Prochazka. 1748-1820. Zivot-Dilo-Doba (Dr. Med. Georg Prochazka. 1749-1820. Life-Work-Era) (Prague: &eskoslovenskai akademie ved, 1956, 257 pp.); Josef Vinari, Obrazy z minulosti c'eskJho lJkar'stvi (Sketches from the Past of Czech Medicine) (Prague: Staitni zdravotnicke nakladatelstvi, 1959, 240 pp.); Michal Navratil, Almanach c`eskfch lkkarbu (Almanack of Czech Physicians) (Prague, 1913, 387 pp.); Ludvik Schmid and Eva Rozsivalova, Prazske' lkkarske' disertace (The Prague Medical Dissertations) (Prague, 1957, 145 pp.) (Acta Universitatis Carolinae-Medica.)

    On the history of Slovak medicine, see: B. K. Rippa, K historii mediciny na Slovensku (Regarding the History of Medicine in Slovakia) (Bratislava: Slovenska' akademia vied, 1956, 202 pp.).

    34. In memoriam Joh. Ev. Purkyne, 1787-1937. Prague: Purkyinova spolecnost, 1937. 100 pp.

    A collection of historical studies and essays in French, German, and English by various authors concerning the scientific contributions of Jan Evangelista Purkyne, a physiologist of world repute and the most prominent Czech scientist of all times. His name, in German publications usually spelled Purkinje, is familiar to every student of medicine and biology because of its association with such terms as fibers, vesicles, network, figure, image phenomena, kinesimeter, kinematography. His greatest contribution was to cellular theory in plants, which was based on the

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    realization that the cell is the elementary unit of the structure of an individual and of its differentiation.

    From more recent sources the following are recommended: Rudolph Zaunick, ed., Purkyne' Symposion der Deutschen Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina in Gemeinschaft mit der Tschechoslowakischen Akademie der Wissenschaften am 31. Oktober und 1. November 1959 in Halle/Saale. Published as a monograph in Nova Acta Leopoldina Neue Folge No. 151, Band 24, 230 pp.; Bohumil Nemec and Otakar Matouvsek, eds., Jan Evangelista Purkyne'. Badatel-Ndrodni buditel. Soubor priispevku o jeho zivote' a praci (Jan Evangelista Purkyne. Investigator-National Patriot. A Collection of Contributions about His Life and Work) (Prague: tesko- slovenska' akademie ved, 1955, 250 pp.).

    These may be supplemented with monographs including Henry J. John, Jan Evangelista Purkyne'. Czech Scientist and Patriot (1787-1869) (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1959, 94 pp.); J. E. Purkyne' (Prague: Staitni zdravotnicke nakladatelstvi, 1962, 143 pp.); and Josef BeneVs, Purkyniuv odkaz ve vidc a filosofli (The Purkyne Legacy in Science and Philosophy) (Prague: Cesko- slovenska' akademie ved, 1957, 447 pp.).

    35. Milan Sosna, ed. G. Mendel. Memorial Symposium. 1865-1965. Proceedings of a Symposium held in Brno, August 4-7, 1965. Prague: Academia, 1966. 288 pp.

    The collection contains papers and summaries of discussions presented at a special symposium commemorating the centenary of the classic scientific discoveries of Gregor J. Mendel, which later became the foundation of the theory of genetics. Mendel's results and deductions, first published in 1866 in Brno, were so advanced for their time that they fell into almost complete oblivion until they were re- discovered around 1900, sixteen years after Mendel's death. The revised edition of Mendel's works with a collection of 27 papers published during the rediscovery era has appeared in Fundamenta Genetica. Selection and Commentary by Jaroslav Khizeneckj with Introduction of Bohumil N6mec (Prague: Ceskoslovenska' akademie ved, 1966, 400 pp.).

    The Iconographia Mendeliana (Brno: Moravian Museum, 1965, 73 pp.) brings over 100 selected pictorial and written documents from Mendel's work and life.

    American biologists expressed their tribute to Mendel's pioneering work in a series of lectures published in a special issue of the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 109, No. 4 (Philadelphia, 1965).

    The above collections may be supplemented by Jaroslav Krizienecky, Gregor Johann Mendel 1822-1884. Texte und Quellen zu seinem Wirken undLeben (Leipzig: J. A. Barth, 1965, 198 pp.) and two biographies: Hugo Iltis, Life of Mendel (London: Allen and Unwin, 1932, 336 pp.) and Harry Sootin, Gregor Mendel, Father of the Science of Genetics (London/Glasgow: Blackie, 1961, 192 pp.).


    1. Bibliographies

    36. Ceskoslovenska' akademie ved. tstav pla'novaini vedy. Bibliografie literatury o organizaci, rizeni pldnovani a koordinaci vedeckeho vjzkumu. (Bibliography of Publications on the Organization, Direction, Planning, and Coordination of Scientific Research.) Prague, 1964. 194 pp.

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    A bibliography of books and articles dealing with science planning in Czecho- slovakia as well as other countries. Arranged by subject, it includes information on both university and industrial research planning, financing of research, international cooperation, methods and administration, research trends in various fields, theoretical problems, and the role of research in economic development.

    The Institute for Scientific Planning of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences has continued publishing the above bibliography under a variety of titles, including Bibliografie literatury o organizaci a r,izeni vedy (Bibliography of the Organization and Management of Science) (Prague, 1966, 266 pp.); Bibliografie literatury o vedeckjch a technickych kaddrech (Bibliography of Scientific and Technical Man- power) (Prague, 1966, 171 pp.); Inforrnacni zpravodaj. PiNehled vybrane' literatury oblasti rAizeni, pldnovani a organizaci vjzkumnu. Kveten 1966 (Bulletin of Scientific Informiation. The Survey of Selected Literature on Management, Planning, and Organization of Scientific Research. May 1966) (Prague, 1966, 84 pp.); Bibliografie literatury o organizaci a riizeni vedy (Bibliography of the Organization and Manage- ment of Science) (Prague, 1967, 151 pp.); and others.

    2. Descriptive and Analytical Surveys

    37. Vladimir Slime&ka. Science in Czechoslovakia. New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1963. 175 pp.

    A brief description of the Czechoslovak contemporary system of science organiza- tion, planning, and education. It is a practical guide to the information resources of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the first country to plan ahead the nearly total volume of basic and applied research on a national basis. Three factors in the area of "predictive" information are described: (1) topics of investigation in the physical, biological, and technical sciences as planned by Czechoslovakia up to 1965, (2) research installations at which this work is being carried out, and (3) printed sources through which results of this research are likely to be released. The appendix contains information on the organization of the Czechoslovak and Slovak academies of sciences (as of 1962), the list of Czechoslovak institutions of higher learning and their faculties (as of 1961), Czechoslovak industrial research institutes (as of 1962), classified list of selected scientific and technical and trade journals, and U.S. and Canadian libraries holding Czechoslovak serials.

    May be supplemented with Rudolf Urban, Die Organisation der Wissenschaft in der Tschechoslowakei. 2nd ed. (Marburg/Lahn: Johann Gottfried Herder-Institut, 1958, 308 pp.) (Wissenschqftliche Beitrdge zur Geschichte und Landeskunde Ost- Mitteleuropa No. 30). This handy reference gives a brief description of the organiza- tion of science in Czechoslovakia up to 1956, with detailed information about academies of science, universities, technological institutes, military academies, agricultural schools, teaching colleges, arts schools, and theological seminaries. In each case enumeration is also provided of the staff members of the institution.

    38. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Science Policy and Organization of Scientific Research in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Paris: UNESCO, 1965. 88 pp.

    An official survey, prepared under the responsibility of the president of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, of the status of science policy and the organiza- tion of scientific research in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Includes statistical data.

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    39. Science in Czechoslovakia and the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences. Prague: Academia, 1966. 173 pp., 19 plts.

    A recapitulation of the mission, organization, and activities of the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences (including the Slovak Academy of Sciences) -the "supreme working and directing scientific body of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic." The word science in this context should be interpreted in its broadest sense, being equivalent to the German Wissenschaft, which covers all fields of human endeavor, including archaeology, history, languages, literature, philosophy, education, geography, and economics, in addition to the physical and biological sciences and engineering. The useful monograph includes a brief description of each of the academy's research institutions, a list of affiliated learned societies, and a list of journals issued by the academy. See also 12.

    Notes on the social function of science and on scientific and research policy, as viewed by the Czechoslovak Academy president, Franti'sek Sorm, are contained in his Science in a Socialist Society (Prague: Academia, 1967, 94 pp.).

    40. Ivan Malek. Otevrene otdzky nasHi vedy. (Unresolved Problems of Our Science.) Prague: Academia, 1966. 312 pp., illus.

    A sequel to Mailek's earlier publication, Boj noveho se starym v dnesni nas'i vede (The Struggle between the Old and the New in Our Present-Day Science) (Prague: Nakl. Ceskoslovenske akademie ved, 1955, 170 pp.). An interpretative analysis of the Czechoslovak experiences with science planning and of the relationships between scientific progress and the building of the socialist society.


    The annual meeting of the History of Science Society will be held in New York in December, in conjunction with the American Historical Association. Those who wish to contribute papers to the sessions on work in progress are invited to submit titles and abstracts no later than September 1, 1971, to the chairman of the program committee, Professor John Abrams, Institute for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology, University of Toronto, Toronto 2B, Ontario, Canada.

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    Article Contentsp.79p.80p.81p.82p.83p.84p.85p.86p.87p.88p.89p.90p.91p.92p.93p.94p.95

    Issue Table of ContentsIsis, Vol. 62, No. 1 (Spring, 1971), pp. 1-124Front Matter [pp.1-2]Applied Microscopy and American Pork Diplomacy: Charles Wardell Stiles in Germany 1898-1899 [pp.5-20]Leibniz and the Vis Viva Controversy [pp.21-35]The Mathematical Foundations of Plato's Atomic Physics [pp.36-46]"Into Hostile Political Camps": The Reorganization of International Science in World War I [pp.47-60]Prophatius Judaeus and the Medieval Astronomical Tables [pp.61-68]Documents & TranslationsBiographical Sketch of Herman Hollerith [pp.69-78]An Introduction to the History of Czechoslovak Thought and Science: A Critical Bibliography [pp.79-95]

    News [pp.96-98]Book ReviewsPsychiatric Selections [pp.99-105]

    History of Scienceuntitled [pp.105-106]

    Humanistic Relations of Scienceuntitled [pp.106-108]

    Medicineuntitled [pp.109-110]untitled [pp.110-111]

    Classical Antiquityuntitled [pp.111-113]untitled [pp.113-114]

    Seventeenth & Eighteenth Centuriesuntitled [pp.114-115]untitled [p.115]

    Nineteenth & Twentieth Centuriesuntitled [pp.115-116]untitled [pp.116-117]untitled [p.118]untitled [pp.119-120]

    Contemporary Sciencesuntitled [pp.120-121]

    Back Matter [pp.122-124]


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