amphibian & reptile management

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Amphibian & Reptile Management. Dr. N. Matthew Ellinwood, D.V.M., Ph.D. March 21, 2012. Iowa State University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. General Considerations: Some relevant to Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fish. Domestic Animals? Green iguana is kept as a food animal - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Amphibian & ReptileManagementDr. N. Matthew Ellinwood, D.V.M., Ph.D.March 21, 2012IOWA STATE UNIVERSITYCOLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES

  • Domestic Animals? Green iguana is kept as a food animalCrocodile; $17 million impact (Louisiana) Others?Companion animal management requires more closely replicating wild environmentsHabitatFoodRegulationGeneral Considerations:Some relevant to Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fish

  • Feeding AmphibiansTadpolesCarnivorous/herbivorous/omnivorousAdultsVisually oriented on prey (may require live insects)CarnivorousInsects (supplements)FishCommercial diet (aquatic fish)

  • Vivariumsoil or peatwater think fishdechlorinatefiltertemperatureshelter

  • FoodInfusoria babiesPurchased or maintained culturesEarthwormsBlood wormsBoth a fish and amphibian commercial foodDrosophilaCricketsMice

  • Breeding Behavior and DevelopmentPseudocopulationAmplexusLatin for embraceFertilization can occur internally or externallyInternal fertilization accomplished by females taking up spermatophores(Usually) water dependent development and with metamorphsis

  • CitesConvention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Florahttp://www.cites.org/

    ~5000 animal species~28,000 plant species

  • Threatened And EndangeredSentinel speciesChytridiomycosis50% of Salamander and Newts at risk10% extinction of some classesRhacophoridae "moss, bush, tree, or flying frogs"

  • AmphibiansSmooth, moist, glandular skinmost species absorb water through skinsome species breath through skinMust spend part of life in waterMetamorphosisEggs adapted to water environmentworld 6,260 speciesU. S. 230 species

  • Evolutionary ConcernsDerived from Coelocanth/lungfish type forebearer

    Developed in Devonian period~400 million years agoTop predatorsPermian Triassic extinctions 250 million years ago

  • AmphibiansFrogsToadsNewtsSalamandersCaecilians (clade Apoda)

  • FrogsSpend most or all of life in water

    green frogRana clamitans

  • FROGSAmerican green tree frog Hyla cinerea

  • ToadsDevelop in waterSpend later life on landAmerican toad Bufo americanus americanus

  • NewtsSpend (most of) life in water or marshy areasRegenerative abilities (see salamanders)Toxins: She turned me into a Newt . . . . I got betterred spotted newt Eastern newtNotophthalmus viridescens easy to keep

  • SalamandersApproximately 320 species2 to 70 inches in lengthAutotomyLimb regeneration etc (limbs, eyes, spinal cords, hearts, intestines)

  • Fire salamander easy to keepEuropean and long lived

  • Axolotl albinoFailure of metamorphosis

  • axolotl - gold

  • AxotltlRelated to Tiger salamandersResearch focusMetamorphosis failureGilled and aquaticLarge embryoEase of productionRegenerativeNamed for lake under Mexico City

  • Tiger salamanderterrestrialEasy to keepCarriers of Chytrodiomycosis

  • CaeciliansTropicalLive underground1 inch to 1.5 metersSeen in (aquarium) pet tradeSicilian eelTyphlonectes from South America (fully aquatic)

  • Fire Bellied ToadSmallSouth AsiaToxinsChildrenDiurnalCan tame up10-15 years

  • Poison Dart FrogNameSouth AmericaRainforestsUp to 1.5 inchesAntsDiurnal3-5 years

  • African Clawed FrogsAfricanFully aquatic6 inches15 yearsPet tradeResearchCarnivorousGood starter

  • Tree frogsAmericas, Asia, Europe~640 SppSmallBrightly coloredNocturnalSpecial lightsSpecial cyclesHyla cinereaMississippi Valley

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