amir hossein miladipour m.d. nephrology &transplantation section shohada tajrish hospital

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  • Amir Hossein Miladipour M.D. Nephrology &Transplantation Section Shohada Tajrish Hospital
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  • Acute hemodialysis vascular access: Acute dialysis catheters Cuffed,tunneled dialysis catheters Chronic hemodialysis vascular access: native arteriovenous (AV) fistulas synthetic grafts
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  • Acute Hemodialysis Catheters Double-lumen, non-cuffed, non-tunneled hemodialysis catheters have become the preferred method for obtaining acute hemodialysis vascular access An acute triple-lumen dialysis catheter has been developed. The third lumen is available for blood drawing and the intravenous administration of drugs and fluid. The maximum blood flow is usually blood pump speeds of 300 mL/min, with an actual blood flow of 250 mL/min or less.
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  • Acute Hemodialysis Catheters Site of catheter Insertion can be inserted into the jugular, subclavian, and femoral veins Routine use-life of catheters The limits on use-life are caused by infection internal jugular catheters are suitable for 2 to 3 weeks of use femoral catheters are usually used for a single treatment (ambulatory patients) or for 3 to 7 days in bed bound patients
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  • Double lumen cuffed tunneled catheters Are principally constructed of silastic/silicone and other soft flexible polymers, which are less thrombogenic than polymers used in acute catheters. Require fluoroscopy for insertion due to their larger size and to the confirmation of tip location. Many allow right atrial tip location based on their soft polymer construction
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  • Double lumen cuffed tunneled catheters Allow faster blood flows than acute catheters, Usually blood pump speeds of 400 mL/min Actual blood flow rates are almost always lower than those reported by the blood pump(20%-30%) Compare to fistulas or arteriovenous grafts, most patients require an increase in treatment time of approximately 20 percent to achieve equivalent urea removal. Cuffed tunneled catheter survival is highly variable, 74 percent 1-year and a 43 percent 2-year catheter survival
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  • Acute Double Lumen Catheter Complications Complications associated with insertion: Transient atrial or even ventricular arrhythmias due to overinsertion of guidewires Hemothorax Pneumothorax Catheter-induced subclavian stenosis and subsequent loss of the ipsilateral arm for future hemodialysis access The location of the catheter in subclavian and internal jugular insertion should always be confirmed by x-ray prior to the initiation of hemodialysis or the administration of anticoagulants
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  • Catheter Malfunction Definition: Failure to achieve blood flow rate at least 300ml/min on 2 consecutive occasions or less than 200ml/min on a single occasion Early:Inproper positioning of catheter tip subcutaneous kinking of catheter Late: intraluminal thrombi and less commonly extrluminal thrombi( fibrin tails)
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  • Double Lumen Catheter Complications Catheter thrombosis Prevention Heparin of either 1 mL = 1000 Units, 1 mL= 5,000 Units, or 1 mL = 10,000 Units can be used alteplase (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, rtPA) administration of alteplase (2 mg injected into each lumen) was associated with significantly higher blood flow rates and better arterial and venous pressures compared with heparin Treatment Lytic agents such as urokinase and alteplase are effective Non-cuffed catheters should be exchanged if flow is inadequate
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  • Double Lumen Catheter Complications Central vein thrombosis and stenosis occur more often with subclavian (40 to 50 percent of cases in some studies) than with internal jugular insertions (up to 10 percent) The K/DOQI guidelines therefore recommend avoiding placement in the subclavian vein, unless no other options are available
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  • Double Lumen Catheter Complications Infection local exit site infection systemic bacteremia Bacteremia generally results from either contamination of the catheter lumen or migration of bacteria from the skin through the entry site, down the hemodialysis catheter into the blood stream
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  • Double Lumen Catheter Complications Prevention of infection: strict adherence to proper placement technique optimal exit site care management of the catheter within the hemodialysis facility antiseptic or antibiotic-bonded hemodialysis catheters, minocycline-rifampin coated catheter,citrate4%
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  • Double Lumen Catheter Complications MICROBIOLOGY Staphylococcal infection, both coagulase-negative and S. aureus, accounts for 40 to 81 percent of cases,and enterococci and Gram negative rods DIAGNOSIS: Blood cultures colony count four-fold higher in blood drawn from the catheter compared to the peripheral specimen had a sensitivity of 94 percent, a specificity of 100 percent, A single bacterial count of >100 cfu/mL from catheter cultures with an identical organism growing from the peripheral blood specimen it is common to occur in the absence of evidence of an exit-site infection
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  • Double Lumen Catheter Complications Treatment of infection: initially treating with broad spectrum agents ( vancomycin and an aminoglycoside). Obtaining of blood cultures two to four days after initiation of antibiotic therapy.
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  • Double Lumen Catheter Complications Catheter removal All non-cuffed catheters should be removed in the presence of bacteremia if follow-up blood cultures remain positive for more than five days despite appropriate antimicrobial therapy signs of accompanying exit-site or tunnel infection (erythema or pus at exit- site) infection with Candida or an infected clot. An infected clot should be suspected if infusing or drawing blood through the line is difficult or associated with rigors. the patient becomes hemodynamically unstable or if the fever persists or cultures remain positive after two to four days. Patients who remain febrile or have positive cultures after the catheter is removed should undergo a thorough examination for metastatic complications (such as endocarditis and vertebral osteomyelitis)
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  • Double Lumen Catheter Complications Recommendations: All personnel should be adequately trained in aseptic techniques and about the importance of routine hand hygiene before and after patient contact. topical use of povodone-iodine on the catheter hubs nurses or technicians routinely wear nonsterile gloves and a mask when dialysis catheters are accessed monitor rates of dialysis-associated infections to detect and understand local trends in types of pathogens, incidence and antimicrobial resistance
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  • Chronic hemodialysis vascular access Native arteriovenous (AV) fistulas Synthetic grafts Double-lumen tunneled cuffed catheters
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  • Native arteriovenous (AV) fistulas constructed with an end-to-side vein-to-artery anastomosis between an artery and vein Radial artery and cephalic vein (radiocephalic or wrist fistula) Brachial artery and cephalic vein (brachiocephalic or upper arm fistula).
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  • Native arteriovenous (AV) fistulas
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  • Synthetic grafts are constructed by anastomosing a synthetic conduit, usually polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, also known as Gortex), between an artery and vein. The 2006 K/DOQI work group recommends a graft either of synthetic or biologic material
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  • C omparison of Fistulas and Grafts Primary failure defined as an access that never provided reliable hemodialysis. In radiocephalic fistulas 24 to 35 percent brachiocephalic fistula 9 to 12 and brachiobasilic fistulas 29 to 36 percent forearm grafts 0 to 13 percent upper arm grafts 0 to 3
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  • Comparison of Fistulas and Grafts Time to use Grafts Grafts can be cannulated for hemodialysis earlier than fistulas. Grafts can usually be cannulated within weeks. Some times within days of surgery Fistulas Cannulation before two weeks of age should be avoided. Cannulation between two to four weeks may be attempted but only if the fistula is considered mature. Cannulation after four weeks of maturation may be safe, if the fistula is mature. Independent of the age of the fistula, clinical examination prior to cannulation is very important, given that some fistulas require up to six months to mature.
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  • Comparison of Fistulas and Grafts Patency/secondary failure In native fistulas the risk of secondary failure is low. The 5-year and 10year cumulative patencies for radiocephalic fistulas are reported to be 53 and 45 percent, respectively cumulative patency for PTFE grafts at one, two, and four years is approximately 67, 50 and 43 percent, respectively
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  • Comparison of Fistulas and Grafts Complications: grafts vs. AVF Thrombosis: 3.8 times Infection: 10%,2% Steal syndrome: 5% in both Aneurysms: 5%, 3% venous hypertension: 3% in both seromas heart failure: less than 1% in AVF local bleeding Thrombosis, infection, and seromas occur more frequently with grafts than with fistulas
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  • Steal syndrome Symptoms and signs: Mild: Coldness, numbness, paresthesias,pain during dialysis, with retained pulses Severe(Indication for ischemia correction): Constant pain, severe numbness,a nonhealing


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