American Art Post 1300s

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american art after the 1300's, mostly before the spanish conquest i think

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<ul><li> 1. By Nisha George,Devon Rush, Taylor Martin, and Abby McCarty </li></ul><p> 2. Humans first arrived in the Americas about 30,000 years ago. Civilizations with some similar characteristics rose across North and South America. (The Olmec, Maya, Aztec, Inca) Art was central to the indigenous peoples lives. Most art pieces had ritual uses. 3. The Mexica people were the rulers of the land. (previously nomads) They rose to prominence during the 15th century through a series of alliances and royal marriages and began an aggressive expansion that brought them tribute to transform the city. They were divided into 3 classes: elite rulers, merchants/artisans, and farmers/laborers. Their religion depended on human actions like bloodletting and human sacrifice rituals. Hernan Cortes found Tenochtitlan in 1519, in awe of the architecture in the middle of the Lake. 4. A View of the World, pg. From Codex Fejervary-Mayer, 1400- 1519 shows preconquest view of the people the fire god, Xiuhtecutli 4 directions with color, bird, and god. Blood flows from Tezcatlipocas attributes The symbolic circles 5. The FoundingSkull rack of Tenochtitlan page from Codex Mendoza Great Pyramid dedicated to Huitzilopochtli Idealizedand Tlaloc representation of the city and its sacred precinctsun rose on different sides of the symbol of the city temple, uniting fire and waterWaterways divide the city into fourDuring the parts equinoxes, the sun illuminated the Temple of Aztec ConquestsQuetzalcoatl 6. The Moon Goddess Coyolxauhqui (She of the Golden Bells) from the Sacred Precinct (Templo Mayor) 1469? Mexico City Relief at the foot of the Great Pyramid Rope with a skull around to her waist Bells on her cheeks and balls of down in her hair Magnificent headdress Distinctive ear ornaments 7. Pointed carved into the side of a mounted formidable entrance symbolic cave into the mountain; the womb of the earth pit for blood sacrifices in the heart of the mountain circular room inside Semicircular bench also inside, carved with a stylized eagle and jaguar skins Rock-cut sanctuary, Malinalco Mexico, 15th century, modern thatched roof 8. The Mother Goddess, Coatlicue Necklace of 1487-1520 Basalt, 86 sacrificialofferingsbroad Found near theshouldered ruins of figure with Tenochtitlans clawed hands sacred precinctand feet A conquistadorthe sculptures descrived seeing simple, bold this statue coveredand blocky with blood inside theforms create a Temple ofsingle visual Huitzilopochtl whole Skirt of twistedit would have snakes that also been painted form her bodyoriginally 9. The Inca Empire:One of the largest states in the world at the beginning of the 16th centuryStretched across modern day Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia, and ChileIt was called the Land of Four QuartersInca Empire began to rapidly expand in the 15th century through conquest, alliance, and intimidation.Had a hierarchical bureaucracy and various forms of labor taxation Agriculture was divided into 3 cateragories: those for the god, the ruler and state, and the local population. To move their armies and speed up transport and communication, 23,000 miles of roads were built.The Inca kept detailed accounts on knotted and colored cords. 10. Inca Masonry:Using heavy stone hammers, Incan builders created durable stone structures. Commoners houses and some walls were made of irregular stones that were carefully put together. Certain domestic and religious structures were erected using squared off, smooth surfaced stones laid in even rows. The blocks might have been beveled, cut at an angle, or smoothed into a continuous flowing surface.Inca structures had gabled, thatched roofs.Doors, windows, and niches were trapezoid shaped. 11. Walls of the Temple of the Sun:made of rectangular blocks bocks are smoothed into a continuous flowing surface 12. Machu Picchu, Peru: One of the most spectacular archaeological sites in the world. The stone buildings located there today, occupy terraces around central plazas, and narrow agricultural terraces descend into the valley. Its temples and carved sacred stones suggest that it had an important religious function. 13. Incan Textiles:The production of fine textiles is of ancient origin in the Andes.Textiles were one of the primary forms of wealth. One kind of labor taxation was the required manufacture of fibers and cloth.Cloth was deemed a fitting offering for the gods. 14. Tunic: (23-8) Each square in the tunic shown represents a miniature tunic, but the meaning of the individual patterns is not yet completely understood. The 4-part motifs may refer to the land of the Four Quarters. The checker board pattern designated military officers and royal escorts. 15. The Fall of the Inca Empire:The Spanish, who conquered the Inca in 1532, were far more interested in the Incas vast quantities of gold and silver than in cloth. They melted down whatever gold and silver objects they found. The Inca valued gold and silver because they saw in them symbols of the sun and moon. 16. Llama: (23-9)This object escaped the conquerors treasure hunt. This was buried as an offering.Found near Lake TiticacaThought to have a special connection with the sun, rain, and fertility Dressed in a red tunic and gold jewelry, this llama passed through the streets during April celebrations. 17. Eastern Woodlands:When the original settlers of this area were gone, new groups began moving into the Eastern Woodlands. These people supported themselves by a combination of hunting and agriculture.They lived in villages and cultivated corn, squash, and beans.When the Europeans arrived, the Eastern Woodlands people traded with the European settlers. They exchanged furs for metal kettles, needles, cloth, and beads.Woodland people made wampum, belts and strings of cylindrical purple and white shell beads. Wampum was used to keep records and exchanged to conclude treaties. 18. Woodland Art: Woodland art focused on personal adornment- tattoos, body paints, and elaborate dress and quillwork- the quills of porcupine and bird feathers are dyed and attached to materials in patterns.Quill work and basketry were a womans art form.Basketry is the weaving of reeds, grasses, and other materials to form containers. The three major techniques are: coiling, twining, and plaiting. Beadwork became popular when the woodland artists began to acquire European colored glass.Beadwork became incorporated into reintegration. 19. Baby Carrier: (23- 10)Richly decorated with symbols of protection and well- being, including bands of antelopes in profiles and thunderbirds with their heads turned and tails outspread. 20. Shoulder Bag: (23-11)Exemplifies the evolution of beadwork design In contrast to the rectilinear patterns of quillwork, this Delaware bag is covered with curvilinear plant motifs White line outline brilliant pink and blue shaped forms 21. Great PlainsOver time, the woodland people were pushed westward by Europeans. They settled again in the Great Plains.They developed a nomadic lifestyle.A distinctive plains culture flourished from about 1700 to 1870.A light portable building called a tepee was created. By 1885, the plains people were outnumbered and out gunned by Euro-Americans. 22. Blackfoot Women raising a Tepee: (25-12) Frame work of a teepee consisted of a stable frame of three or four long poles, in a roughly egg-shaped plan.The framework was covered with waterproof animal hides.Tepees were the property and responsibility of women.Men recorded their exploits in symbolic and narrative form in paintings on tepee linings. 23. The Northwest Coastthe Pacific coast of North America is a region of unusually abundant resources peoples of the Northwest Coast the Tlingit, the Haida, and the Kwakwaka'wakw (or Kwakiutl) social rank within and between related families was based on genealogical closeness to the mythic ancestor a family derived its name and the right to use certain animals and spirits as totemic emblems, or crests, from its mythic ancestor these emblems appeared prominently in Northwest Coast art, notably in carved house crests and the tall, freestanding poles erected to memorialize dead chiefs 24. 23-14 Grizzly bear house-partition screen, from the house of Chief Shakes of Wrangell, Canada, c. 1840. Cedar, native paint, and human hair, 15 x 8' Denver Art Museumthe image of a rearing grizzly bear painted on the screen is itself made up of smaller bears and bear heads that appear in its ears, eyes, nostrils, joints, paws, and bodythe images within the image enrich the monumental symmetrical design the oval door opening is a symbolic vagina; passing through it reenacts the birth of the family from its ancestral spirit 25. the weavers did not use looms;- Chilkat men created the instead, they hung warp threads from a rod andpatterns, which they drew ontwisted colored threads back and forth through themboards, and women did the to make the patternweavingThe ends of the warp formed the fringe atthe blankets are made the bottom of the blanketfrom shredded cedar bark the small face in the center of the blanketwrapped with mountain-goatshown here represents the body of a stylizedwoolcreature, perhaps a sea bear (a fur seal) or a standingeagle on top of the body are the creature's largeeyes; below it and to the sides are its legs and claws characteristic of Northwest painting andweaving, the images are composed of two basicelements: the ovoid, a slightly bent rectangle withrounded corners, and the formline, acontinuous, shape-defining line here, subtly swelling black formlines 23-15 Chilkat Blanket.define shapes with gentle curves, ovoids, and Tlingit, before 1928.rectangular C shapes Mountain-goat wool and when the blanket was worn, its two- shredded cedar bark, 551/8 xdimensional forms would have become three- 633/4 - American Museum ofdimensional, with the dramatic central figure curving Natural History, New Yorkover the wearer's back and the intricate side panelscrossing over his shoulders and chest 26. Many Native American cultures stage ritual dance ceremonies to call upon guardian spiritsthe participants in Northwest Coast dance ceremonies wore elaborate costumes and striking carved wooden masksamong the most elaborate masks were those used by the Kwakwaka'wakw in their Winter Ceremony for initiating members into the shamanistic Hamatsa societythe dance reenacted the taming of Hamatsa, a people-eating spirit, and his three attendant bird spiritsmagnificent carved and painted masks transformed the dancers into Hamatsa and the bird attendants, who searched for victims to eatstrings allowed the dancers to manipulate the masks so that the beaks opened and snapped shut with spectacular effect23-16 Edward S. Curtis.Hamatsa dancers,Kwakwaka'wakw, Canada 27. During this ceremony the masked bird dancers appear. Snapping their beaks, these masters of illusion enter the room backward, their masks pointed up as though the birds are looking skyward. They move slowly counter-clockwise around the floor. At each change in the music they crouch, snap their beaks, and let out their wild cries of Hap! Hap! Hap! Essential to the ritual dances are the huge carved and painted wooden masks, articulated and Attributed to Willieoperated by strings worked by the dancers. Seaweed.Among the finest masks are those by Willie Kwakwaka'wakw BirdSeaweed, a Kwakwaka'wakw chief. Mask, from Alert Bay, Vancouver Island, Canada. Prior to 1952. Cedar wood, cedar bark, feathers, and fiber, 10 x 72 x 15 28. The Southwest The Native American peoples of the southwest include the Pueblo (village-dwelling) groups and the NavajoThe Pueblo groups are heirs to the ancient Anasazi and Hohokam cultures, which developed a settled, agricultural way of life around 550 CEThe Navajo, who moved into the region about the 11th century or later, developed a semisedentary way of life based on agriculture and, after the introduction of sheep by the Spanish, sheepherdingBoth groups' arts reflect the adaptation of traditional forms to new technologies, new mediums, and the influences of the dominant American culture that surrounds them 29. The Pueblos 30. Taos Pueblo This it located in north-central New Mexico Taos once served as a trading center between Plains and Pueblo peoples it burned in 1690 but was rebuilt about 1700 and has often been modified sinceGreat houses, multifamily dwellings, stand on either side of Taos Creek, rising in a stepped fashion to form a series of roof terraces. The houses border a plaza that opens toward the neighboring mountains. The plaza and roof terraces are centers of communal life and ceremony 31. 23-19. Maria Montoya Martinez and JulianMartinez. Blackware storage jar, fromSam Ildefonso Pueblo, New Mexico. c.1942. Ceramic. Height 183/4pottery traditionally was a woman's art among Pueblo peoples, whose wares were made by coiling and other hand-building techniques, then fired at low temperature in wood bonfires inspired by prehistoric blackware pottery that was unearthed at nearby archaeological excavations, she and Maria Montoya Martinez's husband, Julian Martinez, developed a distinctive new ware decorated with matte (nongloss) black forms on a lustrous black backgroundMaria made pots covered with a slip that was then burnishedusing additional slip, Julian painted the pots with designs that combined traditional Pueblo imagery and the then fashionable Euro-American Art Deco style after firing, the burnished ground became a lustrous black and the slip painting retained a matte surface 32. 23-20. Pablita Velarde. Koshares of Taos, from Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico. Watercolor on paper, 137/8 x 223/8 --Velarde's paintingcombines bold, flat colors anda simplified decorative linewith European perspective toproduce a kind of Art DecoabstractionKoshares of Taos illustrates a moment during a ceremony celebrating thewinter solstice when koshares, or clowns, take over the plaza from the kachinas thesupernatural counterparts of animals, natural phenomena like clouds, and geologicalfeatures like mountains who are central to traditional Pueblo religion-- Kachinas become manifest in the human dancers who impersonate themduring the winter solstice ceremony, as well as in the small figures known as kachinadolls that are given to children 33. The Navajos: Weaving -Navajo women are renowned for their skill as weavers-According to Navajo mythology, the universe itself is a kind of weaving, spun by Spider Woman out of sacred cosmic materials-Spider woman taught the art of weaving to Changing Woman (mother earth figure) who taught the Navajo women. Spider Woman Changing Woman Navajo Women-Navajo Blankets:-simple horizontal stripes-white, black, and brown colors-Mid 19th Century: developed a new technique of unraveling the fibers from commercially manufactured and dyed blankets and reusing them in their own work 34. The Navajos: Sand Paintings -Sand pai...</p>