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AMBA AHB 2.0By Rashi AggarwalRoll no. 2012UGEC044

AMBA INTRODUCTIONThe ARMAdvanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA)is an open-standard, on-chip interconnect specification for the connection and management of functional blocks insystem-on-a-chip(SoC) designsAMBA is a registered trademark ofARM LtdAMBA was introduced by ARM in 1996.

Evolution of amba protocolsAMBA protocols categorized into three generationsThe first generation -ASB and APB. ASB- for highperformance system modulesAPB- for low-power peripheralsthe second generation - came up with an advanced bus protocol for high-performance named as AHB (Advanced Highperformance Bus)third generation protocol which is the AMBA AXI namely the Advanced eXtensible Interface- supports high frequency as well as high-performance system designs for high-speed interconnect.

applicationsThe availability of SystemVerilog assertions for AMBA promotes this industry-wide participation.It is the most widely adopted industry standard for on-chip connectivity for IP products varying from; Memory Controllers, Interconnects, GPU's, CPU's.AHB supports system modules with high-clock frequency and high-performance.

Need of AMBA AHBThe multi-layer architecture acts as a crossbar switch between masters and slaves in AHB system.Acrossbar switchis aswitchconnecting multiple inputs to multiple outputs in a matrix manner. The parallel links allow the bandwidth of the interconnect to support the peak bandwidth of the masters without increasing the frequency of the interconnect.The AHB is a single-channel, shared busthen the AHB will be a 128 bit bus running at 400 MHz

Typical AMBA Based AHB system

Bus Interconnection

AHB Master

AHB Slave

Basic transfersRead Transfer

Data read without wait stateBefore third Positive edge of clock

Write Transfer

Data written at second Pos edge of clock

Transfers with wait statesRead transfer

Data read after third Pos clock edge

Write transfer

Slave inserts wait states to enable additional timefor completion

Multilayer Transfers

Transfer to A & C in 0 wait stateTransfer to B with one wait state

Transfer type encoding

Transfer type example

4 beat readstarts2nd beat 3rd beatLast beatData read for thirdand last beat

Burst operation

4byte word in 4 beats => 4*4=16byte boundary

Example of 4 beat wrapping burst

Example of 4 beat incrementing burst

Example of 8 beat wrapping burst

Example of 8 beat incrementing burst

Example of undefined length

EARLY BUS TERMINATIONThe slave can determine when a burst has terminated early by monitoring the HTRANS signals Ensures that after the start of the burst every transfer is labelled as SEQUENTIAL or BUSY. If a NONSEQUENTIAL or IDLE transfer occurs then this indicates that a new burst has started Therefore the previous one must have been terminated.

Transfer direction

Transfer size


Little Endian

Big Endian

Slave Address Decoding

Reponse introduction

Slave Transfer Response


Example of error response

Data buses

Example of HRDATA & HWDATAProvide data onlyin final cycleHolds data fornext cycle also

conclusionsThe development of an Advanced Microcontroller Bus Architecture (AMBA) as an Advanced High-performance Bus (AHB)master slave was presented.It was built to increase the system performance by reducing memory access time during the reading and writing of information from and to the memorythe delay for the read and write operations is less than microprocessors and other memory controllers.With the reduced delay, the system speed is increased. So the system efficiency is increased Thus the system performance is improved to a greater rate by using AMBA AHB Bus.