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  • Alternatives to replacemethyl bromide for soil-borne pest control in East and Central Europe

    MANUAL

  • Cover photosBackground image: Tomatoes grown in coconut fibre in Poland. Courtesy of S. Sluzarski.Left inset: Solarized greenhouse in Bulgaria. Courtesy of G. Neshev and Stoika Masheva.Right inset: Bucket used as a container in Hungary. Courtesy of Tompos Daniel.

  • FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS

    Rome, 2008

    Alternatives to replace methyl bromide for soil-borne pest control in East and Central Europe

    MANUAL

    Edited byR. Labrada

  • MANUAL

    ALTERNATIVES TO REPLACE METHYL BROMIDE FOR SOIL-BORNE PEST CONTROL IN EAST AND CENTRAL

    EUROPE

    Edited by R. Labrada

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ABBREVIATIONS................................................................................................................... VI

    PREFACE ............................................................................................................................. VII

    MAJOR SOIL-BORNE PHYTOPATHOGENS ON TOMATO AND CUCUMBER IN BULGARIA, AND METHODS FOR THEIR MANAGEMENT .............................................................................. 1

    I. Major soil-borne phytopathogens................................................................................. 1 Fungal diseases of subterranean parts .......................................................................... 1 The agents of tracheomycosis/damage in the vascular system..................................... 3 Fungal diseases of aerial parts ..................................................................................... 5

    II. Available alternatives to methyl bromide (MB)........................................................... 8 Non-chemical alternatives............................................................................................ 8 Cultural methods.......................................................................................................... 8 Physical methods for soil disinfection ....................................................................... 11 Solarization................................................................................................................ 12 Chemical alternatives................................................................................................. 16 Combined alternatives ............................................................................................... 19

    CULTIVATION IN HUNGARY WITHOUT METHYL BROMIDE (MB)........................................... 23

    I. Historical consumption of MBe as a soil fumigant in Hungary.................................. 23 Crops grown in the open field.................................................................................... 27 Crops grown in green- and glasshouses ..................................................................... 29 Diseases caused by fungi ........................................................................................... 33

    III. Available alternatives for the replacement of methyl bromide in different crops .... 41 Chemical alternatives................................................................................................. 41 Non-chemical alternatives.......................................................................................... 44

    ALTERNATIVES FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF METHYL BROMIDE AS A SOIL FUMIGANT IN POLAND............................................................................................................................... 59

    I. Introduction ................................................................................................................ 59 II. Past and current uses of methyl bromide for soil fumigation in Poland ................... 60 III. Major soil-borne pests of horticultural crops .......................................................... 65

    Crops grown in the open field.................................................................................... 65 Soil-borne fungal diseases ......................................................................................... 66 Soil-borne pests and diseases in protected cultivation ............................................... 71

    IV. Available alternatives for the replacement of methyl bromide................................. 74 Chemical alternatives................................................................................................. 74

  • iv

    Non-chemical alternatives.......................................................................................... 81 Cultural methods........................................................................................................ 81

    Tables

    Table 1: Structure of Hungarian greenhouse vegetable production, 199598 ................... 24

    Table 2: Registered pesticides for soil treatment in Hungary, 2006 ................................... 42

    Table 3: Antagonistic micro-organisms tested in Hungary, 19832004............................. 49

    Table 4: Effect of treatments by Trichoderma strains on diseases of greenhouse paprika, Fbinsebestyn, Hungary, 1987............................................................ 50

    Table 5: Mycostop the Hungarian registration active ingredient: Streptomyces griseoviridis K61, Manufacturer: Verdera Oy (Kemira Oy) (SF) ........................ 51

    Table 6: Trichodex WP Hungarian registration Active ingredient: Trichoderma harzianum T-39 Manufacturer: Makteshim (IL)................................................... 52

    Table 7: KONI WG Hungarian registration Active ingredient: Coniothyrium minitans K1 Manufacturer: Biovd Bt. (HU) ....................................................... 53

    Table 8: The historical pattern of the use of MB in strawberry nurseries in Poland, 19992007............................................................................................................ 64

    Table 9: Mean duration of the phytotoxic after-effects (in days) of dazomet, metam potassium and MITC + DD, as determined by a cress-test, in different soils in six commercial glasshouses (1.5 ha each) (Slusarski, 1981) ............................ 78

    Table 10: Non-fumigant pesticides currently registered in Poland for soil-borne pest control in horticultural crops ................................................................................ 80

    Table 11: Substrates used in soilless cultivation in Poland................................................. 85

    Table 12: Tomato rootstocks available and used in Poland................................................. 85

    Table 13: Biological control agents for controlling soil-borne pests that are commercially available in Poland......................................................................... 88

    Table 14: Natural plant protection products commercially available in Poland ................. 90

  • v

    Figures

    Figure 1: Areas treated with MB, Bulgaria, 19992007...................................................... 15

    Figure 2: Symptoms of root-knot nematode infection on tomato ....................................... 30

    Figure 3: Thinning of foot part of the stem typical for damping-off disease ....................... 34

    Figure 4: Typical damping-off symptom of paprika seedlings grown in peat cube ............ 35

    Figure 5: Beginning stage of Fusarium wilt, withering of youngest leaves of gerbera ....... 38

    Figure 6: Unusually strong symptoms of Phytophthora sp. infection on greenhouse tomato ........................................................................................................................ 40

    Figure 7: The effect of Prestop WP against soil-borne diseases of greenhouse tomato...... 54

    Figure 8: Consumption of MB for soil fumigation in Poland, 19902004 ......................... 61

    Figure 9: Usage of MB by crop in Poland, 1999 and 2003 ................................................ 63

  • vi

    Abbreviations

    CEITs Countries with Economies in Transition

    CGMMV Cucumber Green Mottle Mosaic Virus

    DTIE Division of Technology, Industrey and Economics

    EU European Union

    GEF Global Environment Facility

    IPM Integrated Pest Management

    MB Methyl Bromide

    MBTOC Methyl Bromide Technical Options Committee

    MITC Methylisothiocyanateous

    MS Metam Sodium

    TMV Tobacco Mosaic Virus

    UNDP United Nations Development Programme

    UNEP United Nations Environment Programme

    VIF Almost Impermeable Films

  • vii

    Preface

    Elimination of production and consumption of Methyl Bromide (MB) would not only be important for protection of ozone layer, but it will contribute immensely to making present agriculture practices sustainable.

    Soil-borne pests and diseases present major challenges to the production of vegetables, legumes, ornamentals and other crops grown in open fields as well as under greenhouses. Historically, the fumigant MB was applied to soils as it could effectively control a wide range of pests. As it is a broad spectrum fumigant, little effort was put into the analysis (evaluation) of the species, role and nature of soil pest organisms present before treatment.

    Montreal Protocol now requires that MB be phased-out except for quarantine and pre-shipment uses. Most of the alternative technologies tested and validated in different countries have been effective to a large extent. For this reason the phase out of MB as a soil fumigant represents a real challenge for all, requiring not only changes in technologies, but a

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