all there is to know about artificial insemination
Post on 30-Dec-2015
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DESCRIPTIONAll There Is To Know About Artificial Insemination. "No Bull". What Exactly Is Artificial Insemination?. But This. Not This. Artificial Insemination Is: The injection of semen from a male into the vagina of a female by a chosen tool. . . Looking something like this. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
But ThisNot This
Artificial Insemination Documents from around 1322 A.D. state that an Arab chief wanted to mate his mare to a stallion owned by his rival. Then in 1780, Spallanzani successfully bred two dogs with the use of A.I. Leading to him being named the inventor of artificial insemination. The mass breeding of cattle however didnt come until later, in 1931. By an A.I. Cooperation in Denmark.
Most Animals May be InseminatedCattleHorsesSwineSheepGoatsPoultryDogs
Panda BearsRhinosElephantsKiller WhalesChimpsLlamasHumans
The greatest advantage of Artificial Insemination is that it increases the maximum use of superior sires. Can breed more than one female per collectionThe semen being used can be tested for disease and genetic defects. AI can be used when there are health or structure problems in male or female.
Can use deceased sires
Timing is critical.Technical knowledge is required.
There are several ways to collect semen. Although the use of an artificial vagina is most common.
The artificial vagina is made of a firm cylindrical tube that has a thin-walled rubber lining.First the bull is allowed to mount a teaser cow or mounting dummy
Then as the bull ejaculates , the penis is directed into the artificial vagina, where the semen is captured.
Methods of Semen Collection1.Mounting dummy. (Boars, bulls, stallions, rams)
2. Digital manipulation
Semen AnalysisSperm concentration- Total sperm is determined by multiplying concentration (sperm per ml) by ejaculate volume (ml).
Sperm motility - the percentage of sperm that are progressively motile. A progressively motile sperm swims briskly forward in a relatively straight line.
Sperm morphology - the percentage of sperm with normal shape and size is determined.
Semen Evaluation Visual AppraisalColor varies from yellowish to a light cream Semen from most species is homogeneous in consistency, the presence of flakes or clumps usually indicates inflammation.
HemacytometersCan be used to count blood cells and spermatozoa. A hemacytometer has two chambers and each chamber has a microscopic grid etched on the glass surface
Extending (or diluting) the semen increases the number of females that can be inseminated from one ejaculation. There are several good semen extenders. Those made from egg yolk or pasteurized, homogenized milk are two of the most widely used. A good extender not only adds volume to the ejaculate, but favors sperm survival and longevity. Dilution rate depends on quality of sperm.. Antibiotics such as penicillin and streptomycin are added to semen extenders to inhibit bacterial growth and reduce the spread of diseases
Semen can be frozen and stored for indefinite periods. British scientists discovered that addition of glycerol to the semen extender improved resistance of sperm to freezing, in 1949. Glycerol removes water from the sperm before freezing. It also prevents the ice crystals from damaging the sperm.
Dry ice and alcohol (-100 degrees F)Fertility declines gradually
Liquid nitrogen (-320 degrees F)No deterioration with age.
Swine Semen Bottles and Pipettes
Sperm Transportsperm can travel to the oviducts in a few minutes, which is too fast to be explained by sperm motility.sperm transport is largely a result of uterine contractions, and mucosal textureIn most species, the uterus is hostile to sperm. sperm may remain in the uterus for several days, but fertility rapidly declines. Poultry are an exception, in chickens, sperm can live 1-2 weeks.
Fertilization One sperm only will fertilize the egg.
When that sperm cell penetrates the zona pellucida, it hardens to prohibit additional sperm from penetrating the egg