algae in aquatic, marine, and terrestrial systems

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Algae in Aquatic, Marine, and Terrestrial Systems. General Biology, Systematics, Ecology, and Environmental Impact. Algae in Aquatic, Marine, and Terrestrial Systems. Polyphyletic group: multiple genealogies Prokaryotic algae (cyanobacteria) and Eukaryotic algae (protistans; not true plants) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Algae in Aquatic, Marine, and Terrestrial SystemsGeneral Biology, Systematics, Ecology, and Environmental Impact

  • Algae in Aquatic, Marine, and Terrestrial SystemsPolyphyletic group: multiple genealogiesProkaryotic algae (cyanobacteria) and Eukaryotic algae (protistans; not true plants)AutotrophyBody form: unicellular, filamentous, and multicellularDiverse group: Over 26,900 eukaryotic algal species described.

  • Divisions (Phyla) of AlgaeProkaryotic AlgaeDivision Cyanophyta (cyanobacteria or blue-green algae)not the first photosynthetic organisms, but ancient (3.5 billion years based on fossil record) one organelle is present in the form of simple, flattened vesicles called thylakoids (2 photosystems present)Chlorophyll a, phycobiliproteins; prochlorophytes are related species that possess chlorophyll a, b, and (c)Carbohydrate Reserve: Starch

  • Single-celled to filamentous blue-green alga or cyanobacterium

  • Colonial CyanobacteriumGleocapsa

  • Filamentous to semi-multicellular CyanobacteriumNostoc

  • Filamentous CyanobacteriumOscillatoria

  • Divisions of Eukaryotic AlgaeDivision Rhodophyta (red algae)Division Chlorophyta (green algae)Division Chromophyta (= Chrysophyta - golden brown algae, yellow-green algae, diatoms; and Phaeophyta - the brown algae, for example, kelps)Division HaptophytaDivision Dinophyta (= Pyrrophyta - dinoflagellates)Division Cryptophyta (cryptomonads)Division Euglenophyta (Euglena spp.)

  • Photosynthetic Pigments & Food Reserves


    Chlorophyll a; phycoerythrobilin

    Starch ((-1,4-linked glucan)


    Chlorophylls a & b



    Chlorophylls a, c1, c2; fucoxanthin

    Chrysolaminarin or laminarin ((-1,3-linked glucan)


    Chlorophylls a, c1, c2; fucoxanthin

    Chrysolaminarin ((-1,3-linked glucan)


    Chlorophylls a, c2; peridinin



    Chlorophylls a, c2; phycocyanobilin



    Chlorophylls a, b

    Paramylon ((-1,3-linked glucan)

  • Unicellular Green Alga

  • Conjugation Sexual Reproduction

  • Filamentous Green Alga

  • Colonial Green Alga

  • Multicellular Green AlgaeUlva - sea lettuce

  • Desmid - Cosmarium

  • Diatoms

  • Dinoflagellate AlgaeCellulose-containing armor plates that give them a sculpted appearancemost species found in salt-water environmentscommon cause of red tides - algal blooms

  • Euglenoids

  • Red AlgaePorphyra - nori use to wrap uncooked fish & other food itemsSmithora naiadum - a epiphyte on eel and surf grassPikea robusta

  • Brown algaeFucus sp.Nereocystis luekeana

  • Alaskan Kelp Forest

  • Beneficial Aspects of AlgaeFood for humansFood for invertebrates and fishes in maricultureAnimal feedSoil fertilizers and conditioners in agricultureTreatment of waste waterDiatomaceous earth (= diatoms)Chalk depositsPhycocolloids (agar, carrageenan from red algae; alginates from brown algae) DrugsModel system for researchPhycobiliproteins for fluorescence microscopy

  • Detrimental Aspects of Algae Blooms of freshwater algaeRed tides and marine bloomsToxins accumulated in food chainsDamage to cave paintings, frescoes, and other works of artFouling of ships and other submerged surfacesFouling of the shells of commercially important bivalves

  • Red tide bloomProrocentrum micans bloomAssociated with Hurricane Floyd, which ended a dry summersurface of water slick with this dinoflagellate


  • Algal Bloom: Before and After9-23-19999-29-1999

  • Red Tide

  • Satellite Imagery of Red Tides

  • Toxic Phytoplankton & Human poisoningParalytic shellfish poisoning - saxitoxinNeurotxic shellfish poisoning - brevetoxinCiguatera fish poisoning - ciguatoxin and maitotoxinDiarrhetic shellfish poisoning - okadaic acidAmnesic shellfish poisoning - domoic acidCyanobacterial neurotoxins - anatoxinsCyanobacterial hepatotoxins - microcystin, nodularinDermatitis - lyngbyatoxin, aplysiatoxin

  • Bird Sudden Death Syndrome

  • Bird Sudden Death SyndromeDeGray Lake, Arkansas; Eagles migrate to area in October and stay through MarchEagles eat fish, the American coot, and other prey itemsWinter 1994-1995, 29 eagles were found dead or died of a neurological malady Winter 1996-1997, pattern repeated itself, leaving 26 bald eagles deadDie-off of eagles has been reported in North Carolina and GeorgiaCoots have been reported to suffer similar symptoms and mortality outbreaksWhy? No one knows? Algal toxins?


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