aks 37a: terms, people, places, & events

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AKS 37a: Terms, People, Places, & Events. Middle Ages. Era between the fall of the Western Roman Empire & the Renaissance. It had roots in: 1. The heritage of Rome. 2. The beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church. 3. The customs of Germanic tribes. Disruption of Trade. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • AKS 37a: Terms, People, Places, & Events

  • Middle AgesEra between the fall of the Western Roman Empire & the Renaissance.It had roots in:1. The heritage of Rome.2. The beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church.3. The customs of Germanic tribes.

  • Disruption of TradeMerchants faced invasions.Businesses collapsed.Europes cities were no longer economic centers for trade.Money became scarce.

  • Downfall of CitiesCities were abandoned as centers of administration.

  • Population ShiftsNobles & city dwellers fled to rural areas & started growing their own food.No strong leaders were left in the cities.

  • Decline in LearningGermanic peoples: Oral tradition. No written language, illiterate.Roman peoples: Level of learning sank when families left cities for rural areas.Priest & Church officials were literate.Greek was almost lost forever!!

  • Loss of a Common LanguageGerman-speaking peoples mixed with Roman Latin-speaking peoples.Latin changed!! It was no longer understood!!French, Spanish, etc. all came from Latin.This also helped to break-up the empire.

  • GaulRoman province where the Franks lived.

  • FranksLived in Gaul.Leader was Clovis who brought Christianity to the region.

  • ClovisLeader of the Franks.During war, he prayed to the Christian God & won the battle!!! He then converted to Christianity.He went on to united the Franks into one kingdom.

  • MonasteriesHome to the Monks. Located in Rural areas & became Europes best-educated communities.

  • ConventsReligious communities for nuns.

  • MonksLived in monasteries.Gave up their private possessions & devoted their life to serving God.Opened schools, maintained libraries, & copied books using incredible details.

  • NunsLived in convents Gave up their private possessions & devoted their lives to serving God.

  • BenedictItalian monk who wrote a book of strict rules for monks to live by. Said they should work & pray evenly.Established the Benedictine Order of Monks.

  • ScholasticaTwin sister of Benedict.Devoted her life to the church.First nun of the Benedictine order.They both died the same year & were buried in the same grave.

  • Venerable BedeAn English monk.Wrote a history of England.Considered the best historical work of the Middle Ages.

  • Pope Gregory I(AKA Gregory the Great)Made Popes office spiritual & political.Popes palace was the center of Government.Used church money to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor. Signed peace treaties with invaders.

  • Secular PowerConcern with worldly matters and spiritual matters.

  • Major DomoAKA Mayor of the Palace.He was the most powerful person in the Frankish Kingdom.Officially: In charge of the royal household & estates.Unofficially: Led armies & made policy. Basically: He ruled the Kingdom!!!

  • Charles MartelAKA Charles the HammerHe was the Mayor of the Palace.Had more control than the king.United the Franks!!

  • Battle of Tours732: Charles Martel defeated the Muslim raiders from Spain.This stopped the spread of Islam, saving the Western Church.

  • Pepin the ShortSon of Charles Martel. Wanted to be King.Helped the Pope defeat the Lombards, when they were threatening Rome. In return, the Pope anointed Pepin King by the Grace of God.

  • Carolingian DynastyThe family that ruled the Franks from 751 987.Pepin had 2 sonsCarloman (the oldest son)Charles (younger)Pepin died in 768His oldest son, Carloman died a few years later.In 771 Charles became the King

  • Charlemagne (Slide 1 of 7){AKA Charles the Great}771: Charlemagne ruled the entire Kingdom.Two Goals:1st goal: Control all of Western Europe2nd goal: Convert all of Western Europe to Christianity

  • Charlemagne (Slide 2 of 7){AKA Charles the Great}1st Goal: Control all of Western EuropeFirst he beat the Lombards in Italy.Then he attacked the Saxons & won.He defeated the Saxons-they fled to an island off the coast of EuropeBritainThey became the Anglo-Saxons (English)

  • Charlemagne (Slide 3 of 7){AKA Charles the Great}2nd Goal: Convert all of Western Europe to ChristianityHe did this through conquests!!!

  • Charlemagne (Slide 4 of 7){AKA Charles the Great}November 24th, 800 Pope Leo III asked Charlemagne to help him get the support of the people back of his people And he did.Christmas Day, 800Charlemagne was worshiping at St. Peters Church in Rome when the Pope put a crown on his head & gave him the title of Roman Emperor.The Roman Empire in the West had been reborn and Charles was the 1st Roman Emperor since 476.

  • Charlemagne (Slide 5 of 7){AKA Charles the Great}Charlemagne accepted but was not happyIt made it look like his power came from the Pope & he believed that his power came from God.He said that he never would have came to Rome had he known that the Pope was going to crown him.The Pope did this because he wanted the people to know that Charlemagne owed him his crown

  • Charlemagne (Slide 6 of 7)AKA Charles the GreatStrengthened his royal power by limiting the authority of the nobles.Royal agents made sure that the powerful landholders governed their counties justly.Charlemagne regularly visited every part of his Kingdom.Greatest accomplishment: The encouragement of learning!!!

  • Charlemagne (Slide 7 of 7)AKA Charles the GreatGreatest accomplishment: The encouragement of learning!!!He kept English, German, Italian, & Spanish scholars around him constantly.He opened a Palace School & ordered monasteries to open schools to train future monks & priests.

  • Louis the Pious814: Emperor Charlemagne died & left power with Louis.Louis was a devoutly religious man, but an ineffective leader!!!Made a really bad mistake before he died. . . he left the Frankish Empire to his three sons. . . Uh-oh. . .

  • Lothair, Charles the Bald, & Louis the GermanWhat do you think happened????They fought one another for control of Europe!!! DUH!!!

  • Treaty of Verdun843: The brothers signed this treaty that divided the Frankish Empire into three Kingdoms.As a result, Carolingian Kings lost power & central authority broke down!The lack of strong rulers led to a new system of governing & landholding --- feudalism!!!!