Air Pollution Noise (1)Fgsdffdsfdfsdds

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    POLLUTION

    Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes

    instability, disorder, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or livingorganisms. Pollution can take the form ofchemical substances orenergy, such as noise,heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign

    substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classed

    aspoint source ornonpoint source pollution. The Blacksmith Institute issues an annuallist of the world's worst polluted places. In the 2007 issues the ten top nominees are

    located in Azerbaijan, China,India, Peru, Russia, Ukraine andZambia.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystemhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_substancehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point_source_pollutionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonpoint_source_pollutionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blacksmith_Institutehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azerbaijanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People's_Republic_of_Chinahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peruhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zambiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystemhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemical_substancehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Point_source_pollutionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonpoint_source_pollutionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blacksmith_Institutehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Azerbaijanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/People's_Republic_of_Chinahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peruhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russiahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukrainehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zambia
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    Types of PollutionThere are many types of pollution that exists; some of them have been covered in the text

    below:

    Air Pollution:

    When the presence of one or more contaminants in the atmosphere is of such quality and

    duration as it is injurious to human, animal and plant health or welfare, it is termed as Air

    pollution. Air pollution can lead to health problems and at the same time damage the

    environment and get property into losses. One of the worst effects of Air pollution is that

    it has led to thinning of the ozone layer of the atmosphere, which is leading to an adverse

    climate change that we see today.

    As urbanization increases, construction work takes shape on a wider scale; illegaldumping and air pollution is a consequence of it. Industries and commercial units

    evacuate harmful gases in the air and so does the ever increasing traffic. On top of it, dust

    storms and smoke from accidents like forest or oil refineries fires contribute to air

    pollution too.

    Waste and Water pollution:

    When illegal dumps that are toxic in nature enter lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and other

    water bodies, they either get dissolved or lie hovering in water or get deposited on the

    bed. This results in water pollution deteriorating the quality of the water and affecting our

    aquatic ecosystems. Lots of industrial units and factories today dump their garbage intostreams, lakes and river thus making all these water bodies the final destination of cans,

    bottles and plastics.

    Most of todays cleaning products are synthetic detergents and are an extract of the

    petrochemical industry. These impact the health of all forms of life in the water. Polluted

    water is a hazard, unsafe and also a poison for drinking, recreation and agriculture. More

    fatally, unhygienic water destroys water life and diminishes its reproductive ability.

    Sound Pollution:

    Any unwanted sound is Noise pollution. However, Man made noises that occur from

    machines, trains, planes, firecrackers etc are extremely litigious. All these kind of noises

    affect are mental being, peace, sleep, hearing, communication and our overall mental and

    physical health. The noise levels are increasing with increasing urbanization and

    development. Noise from construction work, industries, factories, traffic jams are all

    leading to noise pollution at uncontrollable levels. Noise pollution is not only a source of

    irritation, frustration and infuriation but also tightens our arteries and increases the flow

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    of adrenaline forcing the heart to work faster making one prone to heart attacks and

    strokes. In extreme circumstances, it may also lead to Neurosis and Nervous breakdown.

    Chemical Pollution:

    There are several sources of chemical pollution like sewage and run off from domestic

    households, discharges from industrial units, accidents and spills at sea, discharges from

    mining and oil rigs and discharges from agricultural lands and units. Constant pollutants

    include pesticides, such as DDT, and industrial chemicals, most notably the PCBs.

    Land Pollution:

    It is the pollution of the Earths natural land surface by industrial, commercial, domestic

    and other agricultural activities. Some of the common sources of land pollution are

    Chemical and Nuclear plants, Industrial factories, Oil refineries, Human sewage, Mining,

    Littering, debris from construction work and Deforestation. One of the ways to stop land

    pollution is to recycle almost everything that you can.

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    AIR POLLUTION & NOISE

    Preamble:

    To systematically address the air quality impacts of potential projects or activities,

    it is necessary to be familiar with basic information regarding air pollution. Accordingly,

    this section includes a definition of air pollution and information on the types and effects

    of specific air pollutants, along with summary information on air pollution sources. Air

    Pollution can be defined as the presence in the outdoor atmosphere of one or more

    contaminants in such quantities and of such duration as may be injurious to human, plant,

    or animal life, or to materials, or which may unreasonably interfere with the comfortable

    enjoyment of life or property, or the conduct of business.

    Sources of air Pollutants:

    Air pollutant sources can be categorized from several perspectives, including the

    type of source, their frequency of occurrence and spatial distribution, and the types of

    emissions. Characterization by source type can be delineated as arising from naturalsources or from man-made sources. Natural Sources include plant pollens, windblown

    dust, volcanic eruptions and lightning generated forest fires. Man-made source can

    include transportation vehicles, industrial processes, power plants, construction activities

    and military training activities.

    Source characterization according to number and spatial distribution can include such

    categories as single or point sources (stationary), area or multiple sources (stationary or

    mobile) and line sources. Point sources are characteristic of pollutant emissions from

    industrial process stacks, as well as fuel-combustion facility stacks. Area sources

    include vehicular traffic, fugitive-dust emissions from resource material stockpiles or

    construction, or military training activities over large geographical areas.

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    Effects of Air Pollutants:

    Air pollution effects may also be divided into several categories, with such effects

    encompassing those that are health-related as well as those associated with damage to

    materials or which cause decreases in atmospheric aesthetic features. Examples of

    effects on human health include eye irritation, headaches and aggravation of respiratory

    difficulties. Plants and crops have been subjected to undesirable consequences of air

    pollution, including abnormal growth patterns, leaf discoloration or spotting and death.

    Property damage include property devaluation because of odors, deterioration of

    materials such as concrete statutory, discoloration of painted surfaces. The aesthetic

    effects include reductions in visibility, discoloration of air, photochemical smog- related

    traffic disruptions at airports and the general nuisance aspects of odors and duct.

    Identification of The Types and Quantities of Air Pollutants and of

    Their Impacts:

    An appropriate initial step when analyzing any proposed project activity is to

    consider what types of air pollutants might be emitted during construction or operational

    phases of the proposed project activity, and the quantities in which such air pollutants are

    expected to occur. Use of emission-factor information organized according to project

    type or activity is a suggested approach. An emission factor is the average rate at which

    a pollutant is released into the atmosphere as a result of some activity, such as

    combustion or industrial production, divided by the level of that activity (U.S.EPA,

    1973). Emission factors relate the type and quantities of pollutants emitted to indicators

    such as production capacity, quantity of fuel burned, or vehicle miles traveled by an

    automobile.

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    Description of Existing Air Quality Conditions:

    Existing air quality conditions can be described in terms of ambient air quality

    data, emission inventories and meteorological information, which relat