Air, Noise, and Light Pollution
Post on 10-Feb-2016
DESCRIPTIONAir, Noise, and Light Pollution. Chapter 12 Section 2. Enduring Understanding. Students understand that Primary air pollutants are those put directly into the air by human activity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Air, Noise, and Light Pollution
Air, Noise, and Light Pollution Chapter 12 Section 2
Enduring UnderstandingStudents understand thatPrimary air pollutants are those put directly into the air by human activitySecondary air pollutants are those formed by the interaction of primary pollutants or with naturally occurring substancesPollution can be trapped near the surface of the Earth by a temperature inversionAir pollution can have both short and long term effects on human healthNoise is a pollutant that affects human health and the quality of lifeInefficient lighting wastes energyAcid precipitation is any form of precipitation with a high concentration of acid.
Essential Questions How do primary and secondary pollutants pose a threat to the environment?What are the long term effects of acid precipitation to all organisms on Earth?What effects do noise and light pollution have on our lives?What solution can we offer to energy waste caused by light pollution?
Key ConceptsDescribe both the short and long term effects of air pollution on human healthDescribe what causes indoor air pollution and how it can be preventedDescribe three human health problems caused by noise pollutionDescribe solutions to energy waste caused by light pollution
Learning ActivitiesDebateWorksheetsLab- performing a chemical reaction that produces sulfur dioxide, and its impact on plant growthCooperative group project Diagram all sources of pollution that comes from your home. Discuss methods for preventing or reducing the effects of such pollution and present it in the form of poster.
Case Study The Health Effects of Ground-Level Ozone
CASE STUDYThe Health Effects of Ground Level Ozonehttp://www.mhhe.com/biosci/pae/environmentalscience/casestudies/case18.mhtmlCase Study on Ground Level OzoneAfter reading case study in your text book and also in the above linkAnswer the following1. write a brief paragraph explaining whether or not lung function tests should be mandatory for children who live in urban areas where high concentrations of ozone are frequent.What are the health effects of Ground Level Ozone and how can we overcome/control the same?General video on air pollution and its effect on human health)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KsVa4BwA4Pg
SHORT TERM EFFECTS OF AIR POLLUTION ON HEALTH
nausea irritation to the eyes, nose , and throat; tightness in the chestcoughing; and upper respiratory infections, such as bronchitis and pneumonia.
Pollution can also make the conditions of individuals who suffer from asthma and emphysema worse.
Eye, Nose and Throat Irritation
Smog, particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide can all contribute to ear, nose and/or throat irritation. Smog is a combination of smoke and fog. Smoke contains particulate matter which can severely irritate the eyes, nose and throat. Even short term exposure to significant particulate matter can cause intense coughing spells, sneezing, eye watering and burning. Similarly ozone can cause coughing, wheezing and a dry throat. Nitrogen dioxide irritates the lungs and throat while sulfur dioxide narrows the airways, causing wheezing, shortness of breath and tightening in the chest. High concentrations of sulfur dioxide in air pollution can cause burning in the nose.
Bronchitis and Pneumonia
Children are especially affected by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or PAHs, which can cause acute bronchitis.Indoor air pollution from cooking fuels is detrimental women and children across the world. It doubles the risk of pneumonia.
Asthma and Emphysema
People with chronic conditions like asthma and emphysema are especially vulnerable to short term exposure to air pollution. Nitrogen dioxide affects asthmatic people more intensely than others.Sulfur dioxide affects people with chronic conditions as well. Since it tightens the airways it can cause people with asthma or emphysema to have stronger symptoms than normal and an increased lack of breath. Air pollution from industrial plants, factories and automobiles all contribute significantly to an increase in asthma attacks
Allergic ReactionPollution acts as a trigger to inflame already existing allergic reactions. Ozone is one of the main culprits. People who have strong allergies may want to stay clear of high traffic areas like freeways and highways; ozone is particularly acute in these areas.
Air Pollution and MortalityAir pollution can lead to death in many cases. The World Health Organization estimates that indoor air pollution from solid fuel leads to approximately 1.6 million deaths per year. During London's "Smog Disaster" in 1952 about four thousand people died in just a few days because of a high concentration of air pollution. Carbon monoxide is also a quick and silent killer. It bonds to the blood's hemoglobin, slowly suffocating people as they breath. Carbon monoxide is especially dangerous indoors during the winter because it originates from unburnt fuel and settles close to the ground in cold seasons. http://www.ehow.com/about_5325756_short-term-effects-air-pollution.htmlSource and link for Short Term Effects of Air PollutionHealth Effects of Air Pollution
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseLONG-TERM HEALTH EFFCTS OF AIR POLLUTION
Long-term effects on health that have been linked to air pollution include emphysema, lung cancer, and heart disease.Long term exposure to air pollution may worsen medical conditions suffered by older people and may damage the lungs of children.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aus9V_UNbiIEmphysema video
INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
The quality of air inside a home or a building is sometimes worse than the quality of the air outside. Plastic and other industrial chemicals are major sources of pollution. These compounds can be found in carpets, building materials, paints and furniture, particularly when these items are new.
Sick-Building SyndromeBuildings that have very poor air quality have a condition called sick-building syndrome. Sick-building syndrome is more common in hot places where buildings are tightly sealed to keep out the heat. In Florida, for example, a new, tightly sealed country courthouse had to be abandoned. Half of the people who worked there developed allergic reactions to fungi that were growing in the air-conditioning ducts, ceiling tiles, carpets, and furniture.Identifying and removing the sources of indoor air pollution is the most effective way to maintain good indoor air quality.Ventilation, or mixing outdoor air with indoor air, is also necessary for good air quality.When activities such as renovation and painting, which cause indoor air pollution, are undertaken, ventilation should be increased.
Radon GasRadon gas is colorless, tasteless, and odorless. It is also radioactive. Radon is one of the elements produced by the decay of uranium, a radioactive element that occurs naturally in the Earths crust. Radon can seep through cracks and holes in foundations into homes, offices, and schools, where it adheres to dust particles. When people inhale the dust, radon enters their lungs. In the lungs, radon can destroy the genetic material in cells that line air passages. Such damage can lead to cancer, especially among people who smoke. Radon is the second-leading cause of lung cancer in the United States.Asbestos Asbestos is primarily used as an insulator and as a fire retardant, and it was extensively used in building materials. The U.S. government banned the use of most asbestos products in the early 1970s. exposure to asbestos in air is dangerous. Asbestos fibres that are inhaled can cut and scar the lungs, which cause the disease asbestosis. Victims of the disease have more and more difficulty breathing and may eventually die of heart failure. Billions of dollars have been spent to remove asbestos from school buildings.
Asbestos in Buildings
Effects of Asbestos
Asbestos FibreNoise PollutionA sound of any kind is called a noise. However, some noises are unnecessary and can cause noise pollution. Noise is a pollutant that affects human health and quality of human life.Airplanes, construction equipment, city traffic, factories, home appliances, and lawnmowers are some of the examples of things that make unnecessary sounds that commonly travel through the air.Health problems that can be caused by noise pollution include loss of hearing, high blood pressure, and stress. Noise can also cause loss of sleep, which may lead to decreased productivity at work and in the classroom.The intensity of sound in measured in units called decibels (dB). The quietest sound that a human ear can hear is represented by 0 dB. For each increase in decibel intensity, the decibel level is 10 times higher than the previous level. A sound of 120 dB is at the threshold of pain. Permanent deafness may come as a result of continuous exposure to sounds over 120 dB.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WfPTrv3BdT0Bursting of Crackers VideoList Possible Sources of Noise Pollution in your Community
Light PollutionLight pollution does not present a direct hazard to human health. However, light pollution negatively affect our environment. The use of inefficient lighting in urban areas is diminishing our view of the night sky. In urban areas, the sky is often much brighter than the natural sky.A more important environmental concern of inefficient lighting is energy waste. For example, energy is wasted when light is directed upward into the night sky and lost into space. Examples of inefficient lighting are billboards and other signs that are lit from below, the lighting of building exteriors, and poor- quality street lights.One solution to energy waste includes shielding light so it is directed downward. Using time controls so that light is used only when needed and using low pressure sodium sources-the most energy-efficient source of light- wherever possible are two other solutions.
Billboard lit from belowSodium Vapor lamp