air and noise pollution
Post on 12-Feb-2017
Embed Size (px)
Air and Noise Pollution
Air and Noise PollutionBy: Mehul Shah (D041) Vatsal Shah (D042) Ishan Sharma (D043) Richa Sharma (D044) Siddhant Sharma (D045)
Air PollutionAir pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulates, biological materials, or other harmful materials into the Earths atmosphere, possibly causing disease, death of humans, damage to other living organisms such as food crops, or the natural or built environment.
Indoor air pollution and urban air quality are listed as two of the worlds worst toxic pollution problems in the 2008 Blacksmith Institute World's Worst Polluted Places report.
According to the 2014 WHO report, in 2012 the air pollution caused the deaths of around 7 million people worldwide.
PollutantsAn air pollutant is a substance in the air that can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. The substance can be solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. A pollutant can be of natural origin or man-made. Pollutants are classified as primary or secondary.
Primary Pollutants: Emitted directly into air from:Natural sources like volcanoesMobile sources like cars- Stationary sources like smoke stacks
Examples:1)PM10 Particulate matter, solid matter suspended in a gas used to describe particles of 10 micrometers or less (soot) .2) Nitric Oxide (NO).3)Nitrogen dioxide (NO2).4)Sulphur dioxide (SO2).5)Carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO).
Secondary Pollutants result from the reaction of primary pollutants in the atmosphere to form a new pollutant
1)Sulphur trioxide (SO3)
2)Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4)
4)Chemicals in photochemical smog:
- PANS are powerful respiratory and eye irritants
-Peroxyacyl nitrates; Free radical reactions catalyzed by UV light from the sun oxidize hydrocarbons to aldehydes, ketones, and dicarbonyl compounds, whose secondary reactions create peroxyacyl radicals, which combine with nitrogen dioxide to form peroxyacyl nitrates.
Major Air Pollutants1.Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) Production - Forms when fuels are burned at high temperature - Results from forest fires, volcanoes, lightening and bacterial decomposition in soil Makes (HNO3) nitric Acid which causes: -Acid rain. -Cultural eutrophication; man caused
Human and environmental impact - Lung irritation and damage -May be cancer causing -Suppresses plant growth
2. Ozone (O3) Production -Major component of photochemical smog -Formed by sunlight reacting with Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) and NOx Human and environmental impact -Lung irritation and damage, bronchial constriction, coughing, wheezing and eye irritation -Damages plants, rubber and plastics3.Peroxyacyl Nitrates (PAN)Production -Hydrocarbons + O2 + NO2 + sunlight CH3COOONO2 (PAN) -PANs transport Nox away from urban areas where it easily produces O3Human and environmental impact -In very small concentrations causes eye irritation -Higher concentrations cause extensive damage to vegetation
4.Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)Production -Coal burning, metal smelting, paper manufacturing and burning high sulphur oilsCombines with water vapor to produce -acid precipitationHuman and environmental impact -Reduces productivity of plants -Causes breathing difficulty -There have been major decreases in SO2 concentrations in the US, this is due to success of the Acid Rain Program and the Clean Air Act.
5.Suspended Particulate Matter (PM10) ; particles with diameter of 1/7th the width of a human hair or less.Production
-Includes; smoke, dust, diesel soot, lead, and asbestos
Human and environmental impact -Lung irritation and damage -Carcinogens and mutagens -Highest measurable health benefits with reduction of these particles
Noise PollutionNoise pollution is the disturbing or excessive noise that may harm the activity or balance of human or animal life. Unwanted human-created sound that disrupts the environment causes noise pollution.
Dominant form is from transportation -Motor vehicles -Aircraft noise -Rail transport noise
Other sources -Office equipment, factory machinery, appliances, power tools, sound systems
Regulation began in US, 1972; Federal Noise Control Act
Noise Pollution: Effects
Three Kinds of Hearing Loss -Conductive loss. -Sensory loss; caused by the inner ear, most commonly associated with noise. -Neural loss.
Cardiovascular problems: accelerated heart beat, high blood pressure
Decreased alertness and difficulty memorizing, nervousness, pupil dilation, decrease of vision
Long-term effects: insomnia, nervousness, bulimia, high-blood pressure, anxiety, depression.
GLOBAL SCENARIOCAUSES:1. Emissions from industries and manufacturing activities2.Burning Fossil Fuels
3. Household and FarmingChemicalsAIR POLLUTION
COMMON POLLUTANTS AROUND
Most polluted world cities by PMParticulatematter,g/m (2004)City168Cairo,Egypt150Delhi,India128Kolkata, India (Calcutta)125Tianjin,China123Chongqing, China109Kanpur, India109Lucknow, India104Jakarta,Indonesia101Shenyang, China
MOST POLLUTED CITIES
4. Neighbourhood Noise3. Noise from Construction Work2. Mobile Sources1. Stationary SourcesNOISE POLLUTIONCAUSES OF NOISE POLLUTION
NOISE POLLUTION IN MAJOR CITIES
Major Air Pollution Issues in India
Air quality data generated by the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) for 2012 under the National Air Quality Monitoring Programme (NAMP) presents deadly facts about air pollution levels in Indian cities.During 2012 only 2 per cent cities have low air pollution on the basis of PM10. In about 80 per cent of cities (of a total of 127 cities/towns monitored under the NAMP) at least one criteria pollutant exceeded the annual average ambient air quality standards.
Reasons for High Air Pollution in India
Quality of fuel (coal, diesel, petrol, fuel oil)
Toxic and hazardous air pollutants emission from chemical industries, (pesticides, dye and dye intermediate, pharmaceutical etc) specially located in industrial estates (Gujarat, Maharashtra, A.P. and Tamil Nadu)
Use of high ash coal for power generation
No pollution preventive step taken (early stage of industrialization)
Reasons for High Air Pollution in India
Predominance of 2-stroke in use vehiclesUncontrolled growth of vehicle population Inadequate pollution prevention and control system in small/ medium scale industry (S.M.S) (brick kiln, foundry, stone crusher etc.)
PM10Almost half of the total cities monitored under NAMP have critical levels of PM10. Indian cities are reeling under heavy particulate pollution with 52 percent of cities (63 cities) hitting critical levels, 36 cities with high levels and merely 19 cities are at moderate levels.
NOXNOx (measured as NO2) is emerging as the new national challenge and a growing problem.
In North India, cities such as Delhi Dehradun, Yamunanagar and Ludhiana show a rising trend. Eastern cities, including Howrah, Kolkata, Dhanbad, Jamshedpur and Jharia, have much higher levels compared to northern cities.
Southern Indian cities show a rising trend especially in Visakhapatnam, Hyderabad and Thiruvanthapuram.
Western cities are relatively better off with almost constant to declining NO2levels.
SO2Sulphur dioxide is not considered a problem in India any more. Its levels in most cities are already very low and declining. Nashik, Jamshedpur and Chandrapur have moderate levels.SO2levels at 79 per cent of the monitoring stations in industrial areas and 93 per cent of the monitoring stations in residential areas were less than 20 microgram per cubic metre.
List of Critically Polluted Areas
Vehicle Population in Nine Metro Cities in India
National Air Quality Monitoring (NAQM)
Started in 1984 -7 Station ( Manual Station)
By 2000 - Increased to 295 Stations (Operated and Maintained by SPCB /CPCB / Universities, etc. and funded by CPCB) Monitoring in Delhi3 Continuous AQMS2 Mobile Vans6 Manual AQMS 6 Integrated Air Quality Monitoring Station being set up
About 200 continuous stations maintained by large scale industries.
Noise pollution in IndiaAs far as noise pollution is concerned, the monitoring is done mainly during festivals such as Deepawali. As per available data, the laid down noise norms for respective zones (Industrial, Commercial, Residential or Silence) are exceeded at many locations. The practice of exploding sound emitting firecrackers, use of public address systems, construction activities and operation of generator sets increase the ambient noise levels in urban areas.As Motor Vehicles are the chief source of noise pollution, the Motor Vehicle Act of 1998, gave numerous powers to the state Administration to monitor the noise levels at their own level.
MUMBAI SCENARIO Air pollutionMain Causes
Ever increasing population.Increasing cars in Mumbai.Excess driving of vehicle.Industrial activities.
Air Quality during Diwali
NOISE POLLUTIONMAJOR CAUSESNoisefromtrafficIncreasing Vehicles NoisefromconstructionUrbanhelipads
Noise Level in decibels Source Effect
135 pneumatic drill painful88 industry / city traffic hearing impairment on prolonged exposure80 alarm clock annoying65 average city traffic intrusive