agina & myocardial infarction

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INTRO,CAUSES,RISK FACTORS, SIGN & SYMPTOMS, DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT,COMPLICATION, PREVENTION,NURSING MANAGEMENT

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AnginaWhat Is Angina?A term used for chest pain caused by reduced blood fow to the heart muscle.Typically described as squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightness or pain in your chest.Symptom of coronary artery diseasealso called Angina PectorisTypes of AnginaStable AnginaUnstable AnginaVariant (Prinzmetal's) AnginaCharacteristics of stable anginaevelops when your heart wor!s harder"an usually be predicted and the pain is usually similar to previous types of chest pain you#ve had$asts a short timeisappears soonerCharacteristics of unstable angina %ccurs even at rest&s a change in your usual pattern of angina&s une'pected&s usually more severe and lasts longer than stable angina(ay not disappear with rest or use of angina medication(ight signal a heart attac!CausesAngina is caused by reduced blood fow to your heart muscle)hen your heart muscle isn#t getting enough o'ygen, it causes a condition called ischemia.Tobacco UseDiabetesHigh blood pressureHigh blood cholesterol or triglyceride levelsHistory of heart diseaseOlder ageLac of e!erciseObesity"tressIllegal drug use"igns and "y#pto#sChest pain or disco#fort$ain in your ar#s% nec% &a'% shoulder or bac acco#panying chest pain(ausea)atigue"hortness of *reath"'eatingDi++inessTests and diagnosis*lectrocardiogram+*", or *-,..Stress test*chocardiogram0uclear stress test"hest 12ray3lood tests"oronary angiography"ardiac computerized tomography +"T. scanTests and diagnosis*lectrocardiogram+*", or *-,..Stress test*chocardiogram0uclear stress test"hest 12ray3lood tests"oronary angiography"ardiac computerized tomography +"T. scanTests and diagnosis*lectrocardiogram+*", or *-,..Stress test*chocardiogram0uclear stress test"hest 12ray3lood tests"oronary angiography"ardiac computerized tomography +"T. scanTests and diagnosis*lectrocardiogram+*", or *-,..Stress test*chocardiogram0uclear stress test"hest 12ray3lood tests"oronary angiography"ardiac computerized tomography +"T. scanTests and diagnosis*lectrocardiogram+*", or *-,..Stress test*chocardiogram0uclear stress test"hest 12ray3lood tests"oronary angiography"ardiac computerized tomography +"T. scanTests and diagnosis*lectrocardiogram+*", or *-,..Stress test*chocardiogram0uclear stress test"hest 12ray3lood tests"oronary angiography"ardiac computerized tomography +"T. scanTests and diagnosis*lectrocardiogram+*", or *-,..Stress test*chocardiogram0uclear stress test"hest 12ray3lood tests"oronary angiography"ardiac computerized tomography +"T. scanTests and diagnosis*lectrocardiogram+*", or *-,..Stress test*chocardiogram0uclear stress test"hest 12ray3lood tests"oronary angiography"ardiac computerized tomography +"T. scanTreat#ents and Drugs 0itrates Aspirin "lot2preventing drugs 3eta bloc!ers Statins "alcium channel bloc!ers 4anolazine +4ane'a.,edications,edical procedures and surgery Angioplasty and stenting "oronary artery bypass surgeryHeart Attac--(ursing ,anage#ent &nstruct patient to notify nurse immediately when chest pain occurs. Ta!e immediate action if patient reports pain or if theperson5s prodromal symptoms suggest anginal ischemia irect the patient to stop all activities and sit or rest inbed in a semi 6owler5s position to reduce the o'ygenrequirements of the ischemic myocardium. (easure vital signs and observe for signs of respiratory distress. Administer nitroglycerin sublingually and asses thepatient5s response +repeat up to three doses.. &f the patient has pain frequently or with minimal activity, alternate the patient5s activities with rest periods. 3alancing activity and rest is an important aspect of the educational plan for the patient and family. *ncourage avoidance of situations that may precipitate anginal episode +stress, intense physical e'ertion, large heavy meals especially during bedtime, e'posure to e'treme temperatures.. iscuss impact of illness on desired lifestyle and activities, including wor!, driving, se'ual activity, and hobbies. Provide information, privacy, or consultation, as indicated. (aintain bed or chair rest in position of comfort during acute episodes 7uitting smo!ing (onitoring and controlling other health conditions, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes *ating a healthy diet &ncreasing your physical activity after you get your doctor#s %- (aintaining a healthy weight 4educing your stress level,yocardial InfarctionWhat is ,yocardial Infarction?commonly !nown as aheart attac!occurs when the fow of blood to the heart is bloc!edmost often by a build2up of fat, cholesterol and other substances(ost (&s occur due tocoronary artery diseaseCausesoccurs when one or more of your coronary arteries become bloc!edspasm of a coronary artery that shuts down blood fow to part of the heart muscleA heart attac! can also occur due to a tear in the heart arteryTests and diagnosis*lectrocardiogram +*",.3lood tests"hest 12ray*chocardiogram"oronary catheterization +angiogram.*'ercise stress test"ardiac computerized tomography +"T. or magnetic resonance imaging +(4&.. Treat#ents and drugs,edications"urgical and other procedures Aspirin Thrombolytics Antiplatelet agents %ther blood2thinning medications Pain relievers 0itroglycerin 3eta bloc!ers A"* inhibitors "oronary angioplasty and stenting "oronary artery bypass surgeryAbnormal heart rhythms +arrhythmias.8eart failure8eart rupture9alve problems$athophysiology(ursing ,anage#entAdminister analgesics as ordered.%rganize patient care and activities to allow periods of uninterrupted rest.Provide aclear liquid dietuntil nausea subsides.Provide stool softener to prevent straining during defecation.Assist with range of motion e'ercises.Provide emotional support, and help reduce stress and an'iety.Assess andrecordthe patient5s severity, location, type, and duration of pain.*ncourage discussion about post discharge e'pectations.*mphasize importance of contacting physician if chest pain, change in anginal pattern, or other symptoms recur.Thoroughly e'plain the medication and treatment regimen.4eview dietary restriction with the patient.(edications$ifestyle factors