age of nationalism events of the late nineteenth century

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Age of Nationalism Events of the Late Nineteenth Century. AKA: La Belle Epoch, Age of “Mass Society” and Age of Optimism and Despair Chapters 25 and 26. What happened by 1850 (or so)?. “Continental” industrialization came of age Britain still led in the production of iron and manufacturing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Politics of the Late Seventeenth Century

AKA: La Belle Epoch, Age of Mass Society and Age of Optimism and DespairChapters 25 and 26Age of NationalismEvents of the Late Nineteenth CenturyWhat happened by 1850 (or so)?Continental industrialization came of ageBritain still led in the production of iron and manufacturingMarkets expanded with the opening of waterwaysTrade treaties in the 1860s eliminated tolls on major river systems (Danube, Rhine)Suez Canal linked the Mediterranean with the Indian OceanGermany had established the zolvereignThe ideas of Marx and Engels had been absorbed by many French and British trade unionists who created the First International, a working-class movement organized along socialist lines(slide 3 continued)Advances in science include thermodynamics, the periodic table and advances in electromagnetic induction (precursor to electricity) Increasing secularism, as evident in the movement known as materialismCharles Darwin wrote On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection and The Decent of ManLouis Pasteur experimented with germs, Joseph Lister developed antiseptics and chloroform helped in surgical operationsMedical schools developed, many eventually accepting womenA shift from Romanticism to RealismMass Society emerged

I Almost ForgotThe rise of ImperialismThe Growth of Prosperity Age of OptimismNew industries, new goods, new sources of energy and new prosperity led Europeans to believe that technology and science could solve all human problemsThe new urban and industrial world created changes that led to a new mass society, which meant improvements in the standard of living for the lower classes. New work patterns established the weekend and more time for leisure activities, including sports and amusement parks where social classes intermingled

(slide 5 continued)Mass society saw the role of government change as it became more involved in public health and housing issues, especially in the citiesDemocracy expanded the right to vote to all adult males, though women will still continue to fight for political rights

Improved Standard of LivingWages on average will almost double in the late 19th centuryHowever, poverty will exist and there was a growing gap between rich and poorWealthy elite made up 5% of the population and controlled 40-50% of its wealth

Lower ClassesMade up 80% of the populationMany are landowning peasants, laborers and sharecroppers, more so in Eastern than Western EuropePeasants came into contact with other classes as a result of military conscription. New public elementary schools forced children to learn national loyalties and the national languageUrban working class included skilled, semiskilled and unskilled laborers. Unskilled laborers make up the bottom of the lower classImprovements in wages, a decrease in product costs and improved cities helped improve the conditions of the working classes. They could now afford other items besides just food, and they had more leisure time as a result of collective bargaining for better wages and hoursThe Woman QuestionUsed to describe the debate on the role of women, society tried to answer the question on whether women should work outside of the homeWomen remained legally inferior, economically dependent, and defined by domestic roles; a traditional characterization of women which was due to industrialization, and still persists todayThe practice of having the man go out of the home to work with pay and women playing a domestic role with no pay (separate spheres) was rare among working lower classesMarriage and FamilyMarriage was seen as the only honorable profession available to womenMiddle class values glorified domesticityFor most women, marriage was an economic necessity. Lack of meaningful, well-paid work for women gave them little choice in the matterBirthrates, which had grown up to 1870, dropped significantly. Causes include:Development of new birth control methodsToo a large degree attitudes changed. More information about birth control became available, despite persecution Despite persecution, family planning was encouraged to help reduce poverty in the lower classes, however it was also practiced by middle class families

MigrationEncouraged by:Population pressure (fewer deaths again due to urban improvements and science)Opening economic and social opportunities abroadCheaper land abroadMinority persecution (Jews and others that did not meet the new national ideal)Who Moved and Where Did They Go?Who: Most often a small peasant landowner or village craftsman losing business to large industrySkilled, technical workersthose in the minorityWhere:U.S., Russia, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Australia, New Zealand

White Mans BurdenEuropean ethnocentric attitudes encouraged by Social Darwinism (survival of the fittest)Created the need to civilize the barbarians and convert them to Christianity

Imperialism in Africa (go to slide 46)The vast interior of Africa held little European interest prior to this period (why?)Between 1807 and 1820, most Europeans abolished the slave trade (does that mean no slavery at all? Also why now?) As slave trade ends, Europeans turn their greedy eyes to the second most valuable resource from Africa the land itself (ironic, isnt it?)

South Africa: Gold, Diamonds and a British Crown?Prior to the 1860s, Africa used mainly for shipping and military reasons (coastal presence)1795 British seized Cape Town from the South African Dutch (aka, Boers or Afrikaners) who trek northeast into the interiorBoer War (1899-1902) was fought after they (the Dutch) discover diamonds and gold. The British won and establish a colony in which only white males could vote Educated South Africans organize the African National Congress (sound familiar?)

Another Part of Africa: EgyptMuhammed Ali (not the same guy) defeated the French and the Ottomans in 1805, though technically still part of the Ottoman EmpireAli industrialized Egypt and expanded agriculture toward cotton (why cotton?)Subsequent rulers worked with the French and completed the Suez Canal in 1869 (what two bodies of water were linked?)Wait werent we just talking about Egypt and the French?Egypt: The New British ColonyTo other parts of North Africa, particularly Nigeria, along with a newly-unified ItalyWhere Did the French Go?Africa: Divide and Conquer1884 Otto von Bismarck hosted a conference in Berlin and Europeans set up colonization rights and boundaries in AfricaWithin 3 decades, almost all of Africa was colonized by European countries (Which ones? Take a guess, youre probably right)Wait, There's MoreBoundary lines not drawn according to African history disputes further encourage disunity among AfricansTraditional African culture fell into decline as European schools, missionaries and western business practices supplanted it

ConsequencesEuropeans built roads, canals, railroads, damsAfrica stripped of natural resourcesNatives treated harshlyDirect rule over colonies exercised by all Europeans except Britain, who allowed local self-rule (similar to Roman Empire)Compare: European Colonialism inAfricaAmericaImperialism in IndiaMughal Empire Are they still in power?1750s - British East India Company, under Robert Clive, will defeat the French in India and gain control of India over the next 100 years (whats wrong with this picture?)Sepoy Mutiny: Too little, too late1858 British Parliament steps in, exiles the last Mughal rulerQueen Victoria Empress of IndiaIndia: Model of British ImperialismLate 1800s raw materials flowed to Britain, manufactured goods flowed back to India (sound familiar?)Railroads and canals builtUpper castes taught English and English customs, Christianity spreads

Indian National Congress1885 Well-educated Indians who dreamed of freeing India from British rule.It would take 2 World Wars before the dream is realized (more on that in Period 5)*Note educated folks less likely to accept subjugationImperialism in ChinaUp until now, what was Chinas relationship with the West?In the 1830s the relationship will change as the British force their right to deal (deal what? Drugs, of course!)1839-1842 first Opium War (guess who wins?)

Treaty of Nanjing: More Opium, More Addicts1842 - First of unequal treaties Britain allowed expanded trading rights 1843 - Hong Kong declared a crown possession of Britain1844 Christian missionaries allowed back in China

More WarSecond Opium War, 1856-1860 Occurred after China refused British rights to expand opium trade China humiliatedWhite Lotus Rebellion and Taiping Rebellion caused decay internallyChina now considered an easy target, so that means

Even More War1876 Korea declares independence1883 Sino-French War China loses Vietnam to the French (subsequently named French Indochina)1895 Sino-Japanese War ended with Japanese control of Taiwan and trading rights (note: Japan also takes over Korea)France, Germany, Russia, Britain create spheres of influence(By the way, where is the U.S. in all of this? Im glad you asked.)Whats the Difference Between Establishing a Colony and a Sphere of Influence?Boxer Rebellion Knocked Out in the First RoundSociety of Righteous and Harmonious FistsAnti- Manchu, anti-Europeans and anti- Christians (guerilla warfare used to slaughter many of them)Rebellion failed - China forced to sign the Boxer Protocol which forced China to pay for the costs of the rebellion and apologizeContrast: European Imperialism in ChinaIndiaChinese Culture Crumbles1901 footbinding abolished1905 Civil Service Exam was eliminated1911 - Sun Yat-sen toppled the government and established a republic (more on that in the next period beginning in the year 1914)Japanese Imperialism (far cry from isolationism)1853 Commodore Matthew Perry arrived on a steamboat to Japan (big deal?)1854 Treaty of Kanawaga signed (big deal?)Meiji Restoration usher

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